European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 60 No 4
November, 2020
Comparative Analysis of Maize Yield and Return to Synthetic Pesticide and Integrated Pest Management: Propensity Score Matching Approach
Olasunkanmi N. Olawole, Ogunwande Isaac O, Adesokan G. Eniola and Olasoji Oluseyi
Technological innovations are continuously shaping agriculture practices throughout time. Integrated Pest Management is an innovated alternative to hazardous synthetic management for pest control. It is expected to compare advantage of yield and returns to farmers to pave the way for massive adoption. This paper compares the yield and return to maize adopters and non-adopters of IPM. Descriptive statistics revealed the mean age of 42 years for both adopters and non-adopters of Integrated Pest Management while gender distribution showed that majority (76.4%) were male compared to their female counterparts who were 23.6%. Result on education showed that 50% of the respondents attained tertiary level suggesting that farming is becoming popular among the learned. Awareness on IPM practice and sources of information also showed that majority (74.2%) of the respondents in the study area were aware of IPM practice while 98.9% of these categories were IPM adopters. Ppropensity score matching analysis revealed that IPM users had an average of 1181.4991kg of maize yield and N194, 846.737 returns over non-adopters of IPM in Southwest Nigeria. It is recommended from the findings that the maize farmers should be encouraged to adopt IPM through increasing their awareness by government in collaboration with NGOs like RUDEP as a guide to the Best Management Practices for Crop Pests control based on its positive impact on maize yield and returns to farmers.
Keywords: Pest management, Yield and Returns, Awareness, Propensity Score Matching
Measurement of Resource use Efficiency and Rural Household’s Welfare of Catfish Farmers under Earthen Pond System in Oyo State, Nigeria
Ogunwande I.O., Goodness E.A. and Olasoji O. A.
This study was launched to measure the resource-use efficiency of and rural household’s welfare of catfish farmers under earthen pond system in Oyo State Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used in the selection of 160 respondents using copies of well-structured questionnaire as instrument of data collection. Among the tools of analysis were descriptive statistics, ordinary least square (OLS) regression model, correlation matrix and likert scale among others. Result of the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents showed an average age(48years), experience(14.09 years), household size (6 members) and monthly income (N68, 747.40). The quantity of catfish output was influenced by fertilizer, pond-size, stocking density, veterinary drug, and water while 72% of the variation in the quantity of catfish was determined by explanatory variables and Durbin Watson(2.231) showed null serial correlation of dependent variables. Allocative efficiency Indices for pond size (8.43), fertilizer (5.87), and water (4.15) were high and indicated optimum utilization in each case. Gross margin analysis was N246.177.83 while poverty line stood at N9, 810.24 and N4, 905, 12 for moderately poor and core poor welfare categories respectively. Hypothesis tested indicated that allocative efficiency and profit made by farmers posed to be an avenue to increased welfare.
Keyword: clinical, instructional, supervisory practices, teachers, professional efficiency.
Factors Affecting Choice of Solid Waste Management Method among Households in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State
Ogunwande I.O., Akinrinola O.O. and Olasoji O. A.
Waste generation is inevitable as it directly relates to population growth and ceaseless consumption of commodities. The study was to investigate the factors affecting choice of solid waste management method among household in Ibadan metropolis. A total of 300 respondents were sampled using a multistage sampling procedure and copies of well-structured questionnaire as instrument of data collection. Data generated were analysed using descriptive statistics, Ordinary Least Square multiple regression, multinomial logit, likert scale and t-test. Results on socioeconomic variables showed that respondents were average age(48 years), household size(8 members), monthly income (N19,580.40) and expenses on waste disposal (N450.00). Gender (P<0.1), household size (p<0.01), monthly waste quantity (p<0.01), years of education and monthly income (p<0.01) influenced monthly expenses on solid waste while 75% of dependent variable was explained by the modelled explanatory variables. Choice of solid waste disposal method revealed indiscriminate method was most preferred by the respondents. The use of burning (p<0.01) was negatively influenced by household size, government (p<0.1) was negatively influenced by age. Contractor’s patronage was negatively and positively influenced by the respective of married status (p<0.01) and resident location (p<0.05) while dumpsite was positively influenced by monthly income (p<0.01) and negatively influenced by resident’s location (p<0.01). Source of air pollution and disease outbreak were ranked very high among the prominent perceived effects of poor waste disposal in the study area. Hypothesis tested showed that there was a significant relationship between the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents and the quantity of monthly solid waste generated. It was recommended that government should provide a means of disposal of waste at relatively low cost and awareness should be widely created through reliable information dissemination means.
Keywords: Solid Waste, Management Method, Households, Metropolis, Multinomial logit.
Relative Effectiveness of Three Instructional Strategies on Students’ Academic Performance in Mathematics in Ikom Educa-Tion Zone, Cross River State, Nigeria
Okri, John A and Aglazor, Genevieve
This study explored the effectiveness of three instructional strategies in the improvement of senior secondary students’ performance in geometry. This case study investigated the correlation between the instructional strategies used by mathematics teachers and students at academic achievement in three secondary schools in Ikom Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. Quasi experimental design was adopted and 150 Senior Secondary School (SS II) stu-dents participated in the study. The data collection instrument titled Geometry Performance Test (GPT) was used. Its reliability was established using Kunder-Richardson, KR-21 to obtain an index of 0.84. Five research questions and five hypotheses guided the study. The research ques-tions were answered using Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA) at .05 level of significance. The findings indicated that the highest learning performance gain was made by students taught using Hands-on Instructional Strategy (HIS) and Co-operative Instructional Strategy (CPIS). While there was no significant increase in the GPT scores of students taught using HIS, CPIS and COLIS over the conventional method, there was a significant difference among the scores of stu-dents in the experimental groups taught with the three instructional strategies. Recommendations suggest that Mathematics teachers should adopt multiple strategies in the delivery of Mathematics instructions for effective teaching and attainment of intended learning outcome at the Senior Secondary Schools (SSS)levels in Nigeria.
Keywords: Hands-on learning, cooperative learning, collaborative learning, learning strategies, Geometry and Mathematics
"Ethical" Education Philosophy of Japan and Vietnam Educational Experience
Le Thi Hanh
The philosophy of education raises the general ideology, to define the guidelines and guidelines for construction and development of education. In other words, if you want to develop education, you have to have an educational philosophy. The educational philosophy is to educate each person to have "self-worth", that is, teaching and learning must help learners form value system of each person, knowledgeable, having the right attitude, capable. Each learner must make him self truly capable and qualified to meet the requirements of society, ensuring life as well as responsibility for himself, his family and society. In fact, each country develops and develops an educational philosophy based on its specific resources and circumstances. Japan has adopted the "moral" education philosophy that underpins its educational development, aiming to create people who contribute to the country on the basis of "steel discipline" and the burden of sharing with people who around me. On that basis, the author wants to study the contribution of lessons learned from Japan's "moral" education philosophy to Vietnam's educational philosophy in the present and next years.
Keywords: Educational philosophy, Japan, Experience, Vietnam.
Utilisation de la Ceramique Dans le Traitement Traditionnel de L’ulcere de Buruli a Taki-Salekro
Kpatta N’Cho Jérôme and Koffi Anvi Kouadio Arnold
Buruli ulcer is the third most morbid mycobacteriosis in Côte d'Ivoire, accounting for 70% of cases of disability or death (WHO, 2011: p. 7) has been present for more than forty years in the department of Tiébissou, particularly in the village of Taki-Salékro. Faced with this pandemic, the local populations are using their empirical knowledge to fight the disease effectively. Those who are able to treat the disease, in other words the healers use materials such as ceramics in the treatment. Each ceramic plays a specific role. Some are used for sacrifices to the ancestors and others are used to ward off the evil spirits that cause the disease.
Keyword: Bio-cultural approach, Buruli ulcer, Ceramics, Taki-Salékro
The Universality of Mother-Daughter Identification and Separation in what we Lose and the Silver Kiss
Monica Joshi and Wa'ed Al-Shdaifat
This paper examines the universality of mother-daughter identification and separation, focusing on a sense of belonging and an irreparable loss and how to get through it. Two debut novels What We Lose by American writer Zinzi Clemmons and The Silver Kiss by English born American writer Annette Curtis Klause have been taken into consideration here.
Both the works tell the story of the heroines’ lives in the context of their mothers’ struggle with cancer and death. One of the main challenges both face is how to carry on after losing someone with whom they truly identify.
There is an autobiographical element in both the novels. They are inspired by the writers’ lives. Zinzi Clemmons was brought up in Philadelphia by a South African mother and an American father. In What We Lose Thandi’s mother belongs to South Africa, whereas her father is an African American from the US. She, like her creator was raised up not feeling she belonged. Her only home is her mother. The Silver Kiss is inspired by Annette Curtis Klause’s poems and her fantasy about falling in love with a vampire as a young girl. Here Zoe, feeling too miserable and lonely because of her mother’s sickness comes across the handsome and silver haired Simon who actually is a vampire and gradually falls in love with him. Like Thandi, her mother is the only shelter for her.
The readers feel as if their own suffering has found expression in both the works. Both Clemmons and Klause have portrayed a young woman’s comprehension of separation as well as identity and acceptance of death so profoundly that it crosses all the barriers of time and place and as such personal grief attains universality.
Keywords: autobiographical, challenge, daughter, death, helplessness, home, identification loss, mother, nostalgic, relationship, separation, sickness, struggle, symbolic, universality, vampire
Which Definition Should We Select? Power of Definitions
Jayantha K., Ariyawansa RG. and Anura Kumara U.
It is very important in every aspect to identify the ideal definition of a word or concept. Within a context that use multiplicity of definitions with their justifications arise a question in selecting the best definition among them. That develops a puzzle of why and how such an environment buildup within academia. These circumstances motivate us for this particular study. The study aims to distinguish how far justifiable the use of synonyms to define a word or concept. As the key objective; to measure the power of existing definitions about the concepts Sustainable, Development and Park six other objectives were developed which are interconnected closely such as: to list out the pure synonyms related to the word definition, to categorise synonyms related to the word definition on their levels associate with the base word, to introduce a tool for measuring the power of synonyms, to calculate the power of synonyms related to the word definition, to calculate the equilibrium point between levels power of synonyms and to verify the levels of available definitions regard to concepts such as Sustainable, Development, and Park. This is a conceptual study where synonyms and definitions were used as data. Two types of data sets such as data related to synonyms leading to the word 'definition' and data related to definitions leading to the concepts sustainable, development and park were collected to execute the study. A systematic data collection was conducted using the English version of the Microsoft Word 2016 package to collect the first type of dataset. There were 459 synonyms related to the word definition collected and reduced 211 repetitions while remaining 248 synonyms for the final considerations. The purposive data collection technique was used to collect the second type of data set. Based on online dictionaries, reputed organisations and journal articles 31 definitions (11 definitions for sustainable, ten definitions for development and ten definitions for the park) were considered in this study. Collected data were presented through lists, tables, and histograms. Two hundred forty-eight pure synonyms for 'definition' were listed. These synonyms were categorised into level A (01 base word), B (08 words), C (44 words) and D (196 words). A measurement tool was developed by equaling power of each level to the power of previous level/ number of synonyms in the considering level, to measure the power of each level of synonyms,. And the assigned power for the base level was 100 or 100%. Hence level A to level D was found with an increasing power line where y = 0.8251x3.7479 and R² = 0.9846. And level A – D were found with a decreasing power line where y = 336.29x-7.532 and R² = 0.8567. Analysis of the second type of data set (31 definitions related to sustainable, development and park) showed 12.5% or lesser power. Hence it was concluded that the existing definitions about sustainable, development and park are weak definitions. At the same time, there is a gap that can be found in both base definitions in the mechanism to develop base definitions. However, this study was limited to a concept study, one base word (definition) and 31 definitions, the systematic sampling technique, synonyms and three levels of synonyms. Also, it was limited to purposive sampling technique when collecting definitions for sustainable, development and park and the study only used simple mathematics like percentage values in calculating power of synonyms and definitions. Therefore more empirical studies can be applied to verify the results of this study by using different words instead of definition to verify the results of this study. And researchers can use different sampling techniques to verify the results of this study, a different mechanism to understand and measure the power of a definition/ base word or concept.
Keywords: Definition, Synonyms, Sustainable, Development, Park.
Economic Variables and Women Participation in Community Based Projects in Northern Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria
Ugbe, Theresa B., Erim, Costly M. and Cecilia, A. Beshel
Women participation in community-based projects is an important element and a means of fast tracking development of rural communities in Nigeria. Women participation at the grassroot level is considered important in reducing poverty and inequality, yet women have not been given adequate recognition to accelerate their drive and liberate themselves as components of the community. This of course retards not only development but also jeopardize and limit the opportunities of creating gender equality and women liberation. If women are motivated and empowered to be totally involved in participation by giving them rights with men to own both financial and materials resources, they could become masters of their destinies. This study investigate the influence of economic variables and women’s participation on community based projects in Northern Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to examine the extent to which income level and employment status of women influence their participation on community based projects in the study area. A sample of 400 women which is 10% of the population was randomly selected for the study using stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Survey research design was used for the study. The questionnaire constructed by the researchers on a modified four-point likert scale was used for data collection. The reliability estimate of the instrument was established through the crobach alpha estimate. The data was analyzed using One way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result of the analysis revealed that income level and employment status significantly influence women participation in community based projects. It was recommended among other things that, women should be empowered economically through skill acquisition, granting of loans so as to improve their financial enablement for increased participation in community based projects. Also, they should be more opening for women to be employed in industries and other parastatals in order increase their participation in development programmes.
Keywords: Economic variables, Women participation, Community-based projects, Cross River State, Nigeria
Effect of Instructional Materials on Students’ Academic Performance in Mathematics in Calabar Municipality Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria
Emmanuel Asuquo Edoho, Ebuara, V. O., Peter Anditung Agbudu and Inah, Joseph Odey
The study was carried out to determine the effect of instructional materials on students’ academic performance in mathematics in Calabar Municipality Local Govemment Area of Cross River State. One research question was posed and one hypothesis formulated to guide the study. This hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. The quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. The sample consisted of one hundred and ninety (190) SSI students selected from six (6) sampled schools. The instrument used for data collection was the Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT). The independent t-test statistics was used for the analysis of the hypothesis, and the research findings showed that teaching with instructional materials has a significant effect on students’ academic performance in mathematics. Based on these findings, some recommendations were made to direct and support the use of instructional materials in teaching mathematics at secondary school level in Calabar Municipality Local Government Area of Cross River State, and Nigeria at large
Keywords: Instructional materials, mathematics, performance.