European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 60 No 2
August, 2020
Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions and Economic Growth Nexus in Oman: Evidence from ARDL Approach to Cointegration and Causality Analysis
Sufian Eltayeb Mohamed
The paper examines the nexus between economic growth, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission (CO2) in Oman from 1980 to 2018. The study uses ARDL bounds, Johansen Cointegration and the Granger-causality tests. The bound test as well as the Johansen Cointegration test both reveals an existence of long-run relationship between CO2 emissions and its determinants. This long relationship indicates that CO2 in Oman is positively influenced by economic growth and energy consumption.
The analysis also suggested that in the short run; approximately 15.1 per cent of total disequilibrium in CO2 emissions has being corrected each year. Moreover, Granger causality analysis indicated that there is a unidirectional causality running from each of the energy consumption (EC) and GDP per capita (economic growth) CO2 emissions.
Based on the results obtained, the policy makers can formulate strict environmental and energy policies for the sake of reducing CO2 emissions.
Keywords: Oman. CO2 emissions; economic growth; energy consumption; ARDL, Cointegration
Jel : C22; C32; Q43; Q56
Managing Dishonesty in Students’ Admission Process: Implications for Access to Higher Education in Nigeria
Okpa, Ovat Egbe, Alade, Feyisayo Omotunde, Odigwe, Francisca Nonyelum and Sule, Mary Anike
The purpose of the study was to investigate the forms of dishonesty in students’ admission process in Universities and how it is managed. The population of the study comprised 110 heads of department and 15 programme managers. A sample of 75 academic heads of department and programme managers from two public universities in Nigeria was used. The descriptive survey research design was adopted. Four research questions guided the study. A questionnaire tagged ‘Management of Dishonesty in Students’ Admission Questionnaire (MDSAQ) was developed, face validated by experts and used for data collection. Cronbach Alpha method of reliability was used to determine the reliability of the instrument. The reliability value stood at r= 0.86. Data were analyzed using mean scores and standard deviation with a criterion mean of 2.50. The findings show that dishonest practices such as bribery, nepotism, racketeering, grade malpractice, distortion of application criteria, falsification of data, are prevalent in the students’ admission process. The contributory factors among others include poor design of examination, low carrying capacity, high propensity for corruption, laxity in punishing offenders. Suggested strategies for curbing the menace include adequate supervision, ethical re-orientation of all those involved in students’ admission process. It was therefore recommended among others that the management of universities should ensure constant and strict monitoring of the admission process.
Keyword: dishonesty, student admission, access, higher education, university.
University-Based Investment and Funding of University Education in Calabar Metropolis, Nigeria
Sule, Mary. A., Odigwe, F. N. and Okoi, I. I
The study assessed University-Based Investment and funding of University Education in Calabar metropolis, Nigeria. To achieve the objective, two null hypotheses were used. The design was Ex-post facto. The population of the study consists of One Hundred and Thirty Four (134) Educational Managers. The sampling technique for this study was census. Researchers’ constructed instrument titled University-Based Investment and Funding of University Education Questionnaire were used. The instrument were face validated by expert and reliability coefficient of 0.79 to 0.82 were obtained using Cronbach alpha. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Statistics. The Result showed that University database services and Bookshop services significantly relate to funding of University Education. Summary and conclusion were drawn in line with the studies. The recommendations were that the Federal and state Government should adopt the directives of UNESCO by allocating more funds not below 24 percent to Universities to alleviate the problem of underfunding in Cross River State Universities.
Keywords: University based investment, funding, database services and bookshop.
Manifest Disproportion and Onerous Performance Criteria as Precluding in-Kind Performance: A Comparative Study of the French and Egyptian Civil Codes
Yousef Mohammad Shandi and Osama Ismail Mohammad Amayreh
The French and Egyptian civil codes both enforce in-kind performance of the contractual obligations whenever possible. However, these civil codes stipulated an essential exception to the general rule of in-kind performance; whereby, both of them authorised the judge, as an exception, to refuse in-kind performance requested by the creditor, if he verified that ‘the performance is excessively onerous for the debtor’ in accordance with Article (203-2) of the Egyptian Civil Code, or if ‘disproportion between its cost to the debtor and its interest for the creditor’ manifested, according to Article 1221 of the French Civil Code. Therefore, this paper aims to analyse the provisions of these exceptions in an analytical approach along with the French and Egyptian judicial trends in relation to these provisions. As a result, the research identified the extent of harmony and difference between them in terms of their concepts and conditions, and implications of their application.
Keywords: Manifest Disproportion – Onerous Performance – In-Kind Performance – Economic Contractual Equilibrium – Egyptian Civil Code – French Civil Code
Clinical Instructional Supervisory Practices and Teachers’ Professional Efficiency in Secondary Schools in Calabar Education Zone, Nigeria
Sule, Mary Anike, Okpa, Ovat Egbe, Igbineweka, Paul Osa and Sule, Evelyn Motun
The study investigated the influence of clinical instructional supervisory practices on teachers’ professional efficiency in secondary schools in Calabar education zone, Nigeria. The survey research design was adopted for the study. Four null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The target participants were all 1,259 teachers in Calabar Education zone. A sample of 200 teachers selected through stratified and simple random sampling techniques was used for the study. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire validated by five academic staff in educational management and measurement and evaluation disciplines. The internal consistency of the instrument was established using Cronbach alpha and 20 respondents that were not part of the study sample. This yielded a co-efficient of 0.73 for the entire instrument. The collected data were analyzed using mean scores and standard deviation, with the criterion mean benchmark set at 2.50. The result revealed that pre-observation conference, observation, post-observation conference and analysis and strategy significantly influence teachers’ professional efficiency in secondary schools in Calabar Education Zone, Nigeria. Recommendations were made based on the findings.
Keywords: clinical, instructional, supervisory practices, teachers, professional efficiency