European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 60 No 1
July, 2020
Industrial Conflict and University Students’ Attitude towards Academic Activities: A Study of the University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
ODEY, Clarence Odey, OKUTE, Agnes Lawrence and ADAMS, Amina Peter
This study investigated the relationship between industrial conflict and students’ attitude towards academic activities (class attendance and study habit) in the University of Calabar, Nigeria. Anchored on Social Conflict Theory, it was directed by two hypotheses. The survey research design was adopted for the study while purposive and accidental sampling techniques were employed in sample selection. The population comprised all undergraduate students of the University of Calabar. However, only the 300 level and 200 level students constituted the target population. The figure was 3,171. Only students of Faculties of Education (1,774) and Social Sciences (1,397) were purposively used for the study. From this figure, 320 students were sampled. A structured and validated questionnaire was the main instrument for data collection. It was titled Industrial Conflict and Students’ Attitude Towards Academic Activities Questionnaire (ICSATAAQ), and was structured on a four-point scale. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis at .01 level of significance. The results indicated that there is a significant relationship between industrial conflicts in universities and students’ attitude towards class attendance and students’ attitude towards academic studies. On the basis of these findings, it was recommended that the federal and state governments of Nigeria should do all within their means to prevent industrial conflict from degenerating to strikes so that students’ attitude towards class attendance and study habit would not be disrupted and discouraged.
Keywords: Academic activities; class attendance; industrial conflict; strike; students’ attitude; study habit; universities.
Teacher Professionism and the Utilization of Instructional Materials in Primary Schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria
The study examined the influence of teacher professionalism on utilization of instructional materials in primary schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State. The independent variables examine were; teacher communication skills and classroom management skills while the dependent variable was utilization of instructional materials. To achieve the purpose of the study, two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The research design that was adopted for this study was descriptive survey design. Two hundred (200) primary school teacher were randomly selected for this study. The instrument used for data collection was a structured four point Likert scale questionnaire constructed by the researchers. The reliability estimate of the instrument was established through Cronbach Alpha reliability estimate which gives .70 and .73 which shows that the instrument is reliable enough for the research. Simple linear regression test statistic was used as statistical tools for data analysis. The hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance. The results showed that there is a significant influence of teachers’ communication skills on utilization of instructional materials in the primary schools and also there is a significant influence of teacher classroom management skills on utilization of instructional materials in the primary school. It was recommended, among others, that teachers should be flexible in expressing their communicative skills, classroom management skills in utilization of instructional materials in teaching to accommodate all set of pupils.
Keyword: Professionalism, Teacher communication skills, classroom management skills, utilization, instructional materials.
Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior among Omani Post-Basic Education Students
Ahmed Al-Rabaani and Ali Al-Shuili
This study examines environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among a sample of 4512 Omani post-basic education students, including males and females from all 11 governorates. They were drawn from class 11 (n = 2136) students and class 12 (n = 2379) of post-basic education. Data was collected using three instruments: Environmental Knowledge Test (45 questions), Likert Attitudes Questionnaire (50 items), and Behavioral Scale (21 items). The results indicate that students had high environmental knowledge, very strong positive environmental attitudes, and fairly good environmental behavior. It also revealed differences between males and females, and between class 11 and 12.
Keywords: Environmental knowledge, attitudes, behavior, Oman, post-basic education.
Students’ Facebook and Twitter usage as predictors of their academic achievement in Physics in Ogoja Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria
Ntibi, Joseph Effiom-Edem and Ibok, Ekpenyong Efiong
This study examined students’ Facebook and Twitter usage as predictors of their academic achievement in Physics in Ogoja Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. Two hypotheses were formulated to direct the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. A total sample of 1000 SS 11 students out of 8413 students was selected from 25 secondary schools for the study using stratified and proportionate simple random sampling procedures. Two instruments were used namely; Questionnaire titled “Social media” and Physics achievement test were used for data collection. Simple Linear Regression was the statistical technique adopted to test the hypotheses at .05 level of significance. The result of the analysis revealed that Facebook and Twitter usage significantly predicts students’ academic achievement in Physics in Ogoja Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. Based on these findings, it was recommended that regular orientation should be given to students on how and when to use social networks to enhance their study habit and academic achievement in Physics.
Keywords: Facebook, Twitter, Academic Achievement, Physics
Appraising the Entrepreneurial Mindset of University Administrators in Nigeria
Basil A. Akuegwu, Aniefiok O. Edet and Mercy N.G. Akeke
Possession of entrepreneurial mindset by university administrators at the faculty and departmental levels could be a means of tackling funding challenges bedevilling universities in Nigeria. In this regard, this study appraised the entrepreneurial mindset of university administrators in Nigeria. The setting was Cross River State. One research question and three hypotheses derived from aspects of entrepreneurial mindset guided this study. A descriptive survey design was adopted with the aim of ascertaining the nature of faculty and departmental administrators’ entrepreneurial mindset. The population consisted of 22 faculty deans and 119 department heads, who also became the sample. Collection of data used a researchers-developed instrument titled: “Entrepreneurial Mindset for University Administration Questionnaire (EMUAQ)”, while statistical tools were Descriptive Statistics, Population t-test of single mean and Independent t-test. The findings revealed that of the 12 identified aspects of an entrepreneurial mindset, deans and department heads exhibited future orientation most and action orientation/proactiveness least. Both exhibited generally low levels of entrepreneurial mindset. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups, except that department heads had higher risk propensity. It was recommended that they should work towards developing an entrepreneurial mindset so as to function effectively in the context of tight budgets.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial mindset, university administrators, administrative functions, faculty deans, department heads
Services Needed by Persons with Disabilities in the COVID-19 Pandemic
Ibrahim El-Zraigat and Mubarak Alshammari
The current study aimed to describe the services needed by persons with disabilities in the COVID-19 Pandemic in Jordan and the State of Kuwait. The study sample consisted of 131 participants. To achieve the goals of the study, the two investigators developed the scale of study which included five dimensions; psychological services, social support services, health services, personal services, and educational services. The validity and reliability of study tool were achieved. The results indicated that persons with disabilities needed psychological services to deal with anxiety and fear of virus spread and boring, the need for curative and preventive health services, the need for community and family support, the need for learning adjustment skills and practicing leisure time activities, and the need for special educational services that meet their unique needs. The study recommended the necessity of providing specialized psychological, social support, health, special educational services to persons with disabilities.
Keyword: services needed, COVID-19 Pandemic, Persons with Disabilities, Jordan, the State of Kuwait.