European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 58 No 2
July, 2019
Eliminating the Impact of Poor Governance and Migration through Economic Transformation in Nigeria
Kalu E.Uma, Paul C Obidike, Anuli R Ogbuagu, Sammie E Ogba, Paul Ndubuisi, Hyacinth N Aniagolu
The paper centres on the pattern of governance, migration and Nigerian economic situation that require transformation in view of the prevailing happenings over the years such as ineffectiveness of policies, strategies, plans and programmes to address myriad economic quagmire besieging the nation, thereby placing the country as one of the poorest and among the most corrupt in the global community. The paper adopts analytical and descriptive approach in examining Nigeria’s situation and found that poor governance in Nigeria is the arrow-head of the ongoing anomalies and inability to address the social, economic and political imbroglio in Nigeria, thereby compelling many professionals, skilled and unskilled to opt for migration as a way out which contributes its quota in reducing needed quality labour force. The paper articulated ways to walk out of the situation among which include: leadership in Nigeria should be determined by communities who know who is who among themselves and should not be who has a godfather or resources to maneuver others; institutions of governance must be reformed and transformed through elimination of all loopholes for expropriating public resources for personal use; business and economic environments need grand overhaul; power and water supply must sincerely be addressed both in the rural and urban areas; transportation and road infrastructure must be reformed.
Keywords: economic, governance, migration, policies, transformation
Psychosocial Predictors Of Poltical Violence Among The Electorates In Ibadan East Local Government Area Of Oyo State, Nigeria: Implications For Social Workers
Ezeokoli Rita Nkiruka, Ayodele Kolawole O. and Lawal Aishat
Political violence is a complex phenomenon that is caused by numerous factors and has implications on the social, economic, wellbeing and the participation of people in voting process. The study adopted a descriptive cross – sectional study. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select 400 participants. A questionnaire tagged ‘’Perception of Political Violence Scale’’ (PPVS) was used to gather data from the respondents. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics of simple percentages, frequencies and ANOVA. The result showed that political violence has significant implication on the economic life of the people (f cal. = 13.412 > f table = 3.86, P < 0.05).Furthermore, political violence has significant implication on the social life of the people (f cal. = 17.285 > f table = 3.86; P < 0.05). For family wellbeing, political violence has a significant implication (f cal. = 19.652 < f table = 3.86; P < 0.05), while for participation of people in voting process, political violence has significant implication (f cal. = 90.969 > f table = 3.86; P <0.05). It is recommended that political violence should be discouraged by law enforcement agents, prohibiting political violence and illegal arms trade, possession and use of arms while perpetrators of political violence should be properly punished according to the law of the country. Also social workers should provide civic education to the citizens to help them understand the essence of politics, values of democratic governance and practices and to help with sentiments in political participation.
Keyword: political violence, electorates, psychosocial predictors, Nigeria
The Influence of Retained Earnings and Equity Finance structure on the Growth of Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises in Rwanda
Emmaboles Rubunda, Gregory .S .Namusonge and Oluoch Oluoch
This study sought to establish the influence of retained earnings and equity finance structure on the growth of small and medium manufacturing enterprises in Rwanda. Two specific objectives guided the study and these included; to determine the influence of retained earnings finance structure and to examine the influence of equity finance structure on the growth of small and medium manufacturing enterprises in Rwanda. Mixed research design was used for collecting, analyzing and integrating quantitative data. The target population consisted of all the 868 small and medium manufacturing enterprises registered with Rwanda Development Board as of November 2017. Stratified random sampling techniques were used to draw a sample size of 273 SMEs. Close-ended questionnaires were employed in data collection. Collected data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences to generate descriptive statistics including percentages, frequency tables and mean scores. Multiple regression analysis was also used to explore relationships between retained earnings finance structure, equity finance structure and growth of small and medium size manufacturing enterprises in Rwanda. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the significance of the model. R2 measured the extent of the goodness fit of the regression model. Study findings reveal that equity finance structure has a positive and significant effect on growth of small and medium manufacturing enterprise in Rwanda while retained earning finance structure was found to be insignificant. The study concludes that financial structure plays a crucial role in growth of SMEs in Rwanda. Based on the findings, the study recommended that in order to achieve a vibrant SMEs sector there is a need for stakeholders to ensure availability of various financing options for SMEs in Rwanda.
Keywords: Retained earnings, Equity, finance structure, SMEs
Cooperative Funding as Driver of Aquaculture Development: Evidence from Nigeria
Gbigbi Theophilus Miebi, Achoja Felix Odemero and Temile Sunny O.
Cooperative-based development model is gaining popularity in public and academic debates. It is important to assess the drivers of cooperative aquaculture development in Delta State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was adopted to randomly select Two hundred and forty aquaculture business cooperative members. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were the instruments used to collect primary information for the study. Descriptive statistics, multiple regression model, cost and return analysis and 4-point Likert- type scale was applied to analyze data. The result of the linear regression model showed that educational level, farming experience, fingerlings cost, cost of other inputs, access to credit and pond size influence the growth of cooperative aquaculture business. Return on investment of 1.06 showed that aquaculture enterprise is profitable to cooperative members. High cost of inputs, inaccessibility to credit facilities, political instability, organizational and operational and pilfering were serious constraints. Fish culture, fish product marketing and fish processing were the major aquaculture activities performed by cooperative members. The result indicates that all the surveyed aquaculture business cooperators experienced development in terms of value of output but at different rates with fish culture recording the highest (55.4%) growth rate. More cooperative funding intervention could positively impact cooperative aquaculture business development with the merit of increased income and employment generation in the economy of Nigeria.
Keywords: Farmers, cooperative society, aquaculture, development, profitability
Linguistic Modality in Ghanaian President Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo’s 2017 Inaugural Address
Owuye Mercy Opeyemi and Idowu Olubunmi Ajoke
Politics is a struggle for power in order to put certain political, economic and social ideas into practice. In this process, language plays a crucial role, for every political action is prepared, accompanied, influenced and played by language. One of the key factors that determine the success of political figures in reaching their goals and winning the public consensus in this continuous power struggle is their ability to persuade and impress their audience that they are trustworthy to accomplish their promises. This is very typical of most inaugural speeches; most elected candidates during their inaugural speeches raise the hopes of their audience by persuading, and strongly affirming the benefits their tenure in power would bring. They do this by the use of distinct language tools to achieve the sole purpose of impressing on their audience their integrity and virtuosity. Following the same purpose, this paper aims to investigate the use of linguistic modals in President Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo’s 2017 Inaugural Address. Using the concept of modality within the framework of Halliday’s Systemic Functional Linguistics, this study investigates how the President elect of Ghana persuades his audience through the subtle linguistic tool of modality in the speech that he is capable and credible to lead them. The findings of this study reveal that there are seventy three linguistic modals in President Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo’s Inaugural Address. The classifications of the identified modals based on their communicational functions are; possibility, proposition, obligation, commitment, certainty and wish. The use of modals expressing commitment has the highest percentage which reveals the level of persuasion and dedication the President has towards the Ghanaian people to serve them selflessly.
Keywords: Politics, Modality, Inaugural address
Defining A Speech Community: A Grammatical Cohesive Study of select Nigerian Christian Homilies
Idowu, Olubunmi A, Owuye, Opeyemi Mercy, Kalejaiye, Abiola and Soyombo, Gbemisola
Several sociolinguistic studies have investigated the definition of various speech communities based on the different linguistic levels of and their inherent interferences. However, few of such studies have focused specifically on the capabilities of the discourse analytical tool of cohesion to delimit a speech community. Thus, this work investigates the use of grammatical cohesive resources in select Christian homilies within the Nigerian context, to define a Nigerian Speech community. Two Christian homilies which constitute the data for this study were selected randomly but purposively too across the country, based on the taxonomy of churches into the mission, the Ethiopian, the African Indigenous and the Pentecostal groups. The grammatical cohesive resources in the data were examined to determine their level of contributions to the communicative efficacy and dynamism of the sermon texts. Using the Systemic Functional Grammatical (SFG) theory that relates the form of language use to its function, the study is expected to highlight the relevance of the context to the data, and consequently, create a unique grammatical cohesive pattern for the purpose of defining a Nigerian Speech community.
A Study of Factors that Hinder and Militating the Utilization of Hand Washing with Soap in Some Primary Schools in Nigeria
Olanrewaju Motunrayo F., Didia Elizabeth, Adebola Olayimika, Oyerinde Oyewole and Benzaki Yinka
Hand washing with soap is among the most effective and inexpensive ways to prevent diarrheal diseases and pneumonia, which together are responsible for the majority of child deaths. The study was conducted to assess the implementation of hand washing programme in selected primary schools.
Cross sectional survey was carried out in 100 pupils and 80 teachers in 10 selected primary schools. Data were collected using questionnaires regarding socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of hand washing, hand washing practices and availability of hand washing facilities in the selected primary, identify the factors militating against the implementation of the hand washing programme, determine the roles of PTA in addressing the identified factors in the primary schools. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha, which yielded 0.862 reliability coefficient. The copies of the questionnaire were distributed among the pupils and teachers the questionnaire was immediately collected after completion. T-test statistic was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level.
The results of the pupil’s knowledge on hand washing with soap was average. Majority of The primary schools had poor hand washing facilities which were not adequately maintained, The PTA has not done its role and have not actively participated in the implementation of the hand washing programme.
This study concluded that implementation of hand washing Programme in the selected primary schools has not fully being implemented. Based on the finding, the Recommendations were made which included that hand washing be promoted using the mass media, improvement on hygiene education curriculum and its delivery and provision of hand.
Keywords: Assessment, Hand washing, Implementation, Primary Schools, Pupils, Soap