European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 57 No 4
March, 2019
Comparative Study of the Factors Affecting Initial Teacher Education in Pakistan and Zimbabwe
Hakim Ullah, Chen Xiaoduan and Tariq Mehmood Bhuttah
It was an exploratory study which identifies to focus on those cross-cutting factors that tended to influence initial teacher education and the emerging issues in both Pakistan and Zimbabwe as epitomized by the trajectory of this paper. Chief among them was the fundamental need to come up with a unique Philosophy of Education let alone a teacher education system as a continuum that reflects the unique character of the people within the newly independent nation-state of Pakistan and Zimbabwe. In this breath, that explains why Pakistan which is 97% Muslims, put in place an educational policy of wanting to harmonize the education system with the basic rubrics of Islam and National Ideology. Not only was this seen as fostering unity and stability of the nation but more so as contributory in providing a conducive environment for development to take place. On the local level both countries were seized with the desire to promote teacher education as a way of recruiting and increasing the number of teacher candidates so as to cope with the corresponding demand of education by their peoples who have just attained independence.
Keywords: Comparative study, Pakistan, Zimbabwe, Teacher education, Post-independent reforms, Recommendations
Effect of Language Skills and Cultural Sensitivity on Performance Satisfaction: A Case of a European-Japanese Joint Venture
Lara Makowski and Ralf Bebenroth
This study focuses on exploring how self-perceived performance satisfaction of managers in an international (European-Japanese) joint venture is impacted by their own language skills and cultural sensitivity. This is unlike most research on language competency and its use in MNCs that are centred on individual psychological outcomes. Based on the tenets of the self-efficacy perspective and feedback from questionnaires, we found that both language skills and cultural sensitivity of managers correlated with satisfaction of their performance. However, only the variation in language ability between the managers and their counterparts in the joint-venture company correlated with the firm’s performance satisfaction. Among the managers, language competency of those with lower ability correlated with their own perceived performance satisfaction. On the other hand, managers with higher language ability than their counterparts in the joint-ventures tended to have their performance correlating negatively with how they saw the firm’s performance. These findings indicate that focusing on individual psychological outcomes does not tell the whole story. In seeking antecedents that correlate with firm performance, not only are language ability and the cultural sensitivity important factors, but the difference in language ability between personnel in the joint ventures also matter.
Implementing Think Talk Write Strategy to Enhance Students of High School’s Writing Skill in Narrative Text
Veronika Unun Pratiwi
This study aims to explore students of high school’s writing skills through collaborative learning, which specifically provides reports on classroom learning situations where the researcher involved as a research instruments in implementing this system. This study applied the Classroom Action Research (CAR) design. CAR underlies class research as a method which enable the researcher know how to improve students’ writing skills in the class. The researcher focuses on four students’ grade X of Science Major. There are four steps undertaken in action research: plan, action, observation, and reflection. In this technique, the researcher have used qualitative data including methods of observation, interviews, questionnaires, and documents. Quantitative data is obtained from the results of the pre-test and post-test. Data is an instrument represented by each test. This study concluded three things, first, the teachers were found to have been able to use collaborative learning in an effort to improve students' writing skills in English, especially in narrative text learning. Second, teachers are required to be able to be creative in creating a comfortable situation, which is important because it has implications for students' interest in learning. Third, teachers are advised to understand well about the steps taken in collaborative learning. In practice, the test results show that the improvement of students' writing skills is seen based on the average score of the pre-test at 69.3, post-test 1 at 73.1 and post-test 2 at 79.8. This shows that the application of collaborative learning models in the teaching and learning process is proven to improve students' writing skills in narrative texts.
Keywords: Improvement; Learning; Writing Skill; Think Talk Write
Visually Communicated Leadership – Finnish Graduating Students’ Perspectives
Jari Martikainen, Sanna Laulainen and Anneli Hujala
This study discusses how graduating students perceive and evaluate leaders based on their visual nonverbal behavior. Thirteen students in a vocational college in Finland were asked to observe five portrait paintings and reflect on the leadership qualities of the persons depicted. The data were analyzed using membership categorization analysis. Five distinct categories of leadership emerged from the data, pinpointing the important role of leaders’ visual nonverbal behavior. Visual cues perceived as communicating leaders’ warmth, empathy, and welcoming involvement were experienced the most positively among the participating students. This kind of leader’s visual communicativeness might promote the newcomers’ smooth entrance into work life. The research at hand may increase managers’ and recruiters’ awareness of the importance of their visual nonverbal behavior.
Keywords: Leadership, visual communication, social perception, categorization, students
JEL Classification Codes: I29 AND J29
Omani’s Social Studies Teachers’ Awareness of Financial Crisis
Ahmed Hamad Al-Rabaani
The study investigates the awareness of financial crisis and associated issues among Omani teachers of social studies. An awareness of financial crisis test was used consisting of (28) questions distributed into six sections comprising demographic variables, knowledge, types, characteristics, causes (theory) and impact of financial crisis. The test was applied to 661 male and female social studies teachers from five governorates in Oman. The results showed that the teachers had a moderate level of financial awareness, which was significantly affected by their gender and experience, but not by their qualifications. The study recommends the importance of enhancing the level of social studies teachers’ financial awareness.
Keywords: Financial, Crisis, Awareness, Social Studies, Teachers, Oman
Effects of Firm-Specific Characteristics and Macro-Economic Factors on Financial Performance of Banks in Nigeria
Popoola Abiodun and Sunday Mlang
This study investigates if and how firm-specific characteristics and macro-economic factors affect the financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria between 2005 and 2014. We made use of data obtained from the annual reports of 15 deposit money banks operating in Nigeria and from the Annual Report and Statement of Accounts of the Central Bank of Nigeria. Multiple regressions technique was employed using panel data with the random effects method used for the estimation of the model. The results showed that Fund Source, Loan Quality, Liquidity, Management Quality, and Direction of Efforts were bank-specific characteristics that contributed significantly to the financial performance of the banks whereas Capital Strength was found to be insignificant. Also, the three macroeconomic factors considered, i.e. economic growth, inflation, and the annual lending rate, were found to be significant factors that affected the financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria in the study period. It is recommended that stronger effective corporate governance be ensured in order to boost up the performance of these banks by eliminating corruption and promoting and ensuring transparency in these banks.
Keywords: Bank Specific Characteristics, Economic Growth, Inflation, Annual Lending Rate, Financial Performance
Female Athletes’ Media Footprint on Sports Press Olympic Games of 1968
Rosa María Valles Ruiz and Xochitl Andrea Sen Santos
This paper's main objective is to identify the gender stereotypes on sports press about female athletes on the Olympic Games of 1968 through the use of discourse analysis and gender perspective. For the gender perspective, the proposal by Rodríguez and González will be used; they present six analysis categories: traditional, progressive and/or innovative, liberal, biological, educational and psychological. For the discourse analysis, parts of the model by Gutiérrez-Vidrio (2010). She proposes the study of the journalistic speech on a macro discursive field throughout the acts of speech (description, interpretation, and appreciation) and the recreation of the discourse's production conditions that are expressed on the answers to five questions: Who is the discourse emitter? Whom is it aimed for? What does it talk about? Where does it come from? At what circumstantial moment is the discourse emitted?
The traditional and biological approaches are closely linked to press stereotypes regarding female athletes through the categories of beauty and racial discrimination. Physical beauty highlights in detriment of sporty dexterity. On a smaller measure, some texts are linked to the liberal theory when the athletes' skills were highlighted. The theoretical approach and the utilized methodology showed its relevance.
Keywords: Olympic Games 1968, female athletes, gender and History, discourse analysis, female stereotypes
An Exploratory Study on the Factors Effecting Showrooming and Reverse Showrooming in Indian Electronics Retail
Saradhi Gonela, Rajkumar Pillay, Archit Maheshwary and Sudesh N S
Online retail consumer shopping behaviour has generated lot of interest among practicing managers and academicians alike. This paper examines the factors that influence showrooming and reverse-showrooming behaviour of Indian consumers.
A conceptual model was developed through an in-depth review literature. The same was validated with customers engaged in either online buying or information gathering pertaining to electronic goods. The model was empirically examined, and a total of 418 responses were gathered from an online survey. The model was validated using tau-equivalent reliability to evaluate the reliability of the variables used for research. The results of the study indicate that impulse buying and convenience of customers along with visibility of the product influence showrooming, while trust that the consumer has on the site and involvement of the consumer influence reverse-showrooming.
The results of this research will be highly useful for electronic retailers, online marketing researchers and experts to understand the why consumers behave the way they behave in purchasing electronic goods online, offline and also a combination of both in most cases. With this understanding online as well as offline retailers can better design their distribution strategy and create effective touch points that serve the retailers better. The study provides a direction to design and manage omni-channel marketing strategies for electronic retailers operating in complicated markets like India. The present study is first of its kind to explore the influences on consumer behavior with regard to showrooming and reverse showrooming and their implications on electronic retailing.
Keywords: Showrooming, Reverse-showrooming, Consumer behaviour, Omni-channel, Electronics retail, Retail Strategies
Nigerian Language Policy and Indigenous Language-use in Lagos Metropolis Secondary Schools
Oyinloye, Comfort Adebola, Ajayi, Edward Olusesan, Ikuelogbon, Kehinde, Osikomaiya, M. Olufunke and Ofodu, Graceful Onovughe
In a nation, certain educational policies are in place in order to help unlock the potentials of the citizenry. The enforcement of a language policy helps to release the energies and talents of the society when an indigenous language is used among students. Hence, this study examines the perceived impact of the Nigerian language policy on the students’ use of the indigenous languages in Surulere Local Government Area, Lagos, Nigeria. This is a survey research that uses the questionnaire to obtain data from 1,200 students, who were drawn from ten randomly selected junior secondary schools in the Area. The frequency counts, percentage, t-test, and Analysis of Variance serve as the analytical tools. The findings reveal that the Nigerian language policy is not implemented in the secondary schools; and that there are no significant differences in the perceptions of the students on the implementation of the Nigerian language policy in the schools on the bases of gender and age. The study concludes that there is palpable apathy to the use of the indigenous languages. Thus, it recommends that an agency be established to monitor the schools, in order to ensure a realistic implementation or use of the indigenous languages. (198 Words).
Keywords: Language policy, indigenous language-use, user-based theory.