European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 56 No 2
March, 2018
The Effectiveness of a Communication Skills Program on a Marital Conflict among Disabled Women of the United Arab Emirates
Alaa AL-Taii
When we mention the term '' non – verbal communication skills '', this term indicates or refers to the skills of communicating information without the employment of language. Such skills may include face expressions, body movements, as well as pitch and vocal tone. In the present research, the researchers aim at determining and detecting the effectiveness of training for women in non-verbal communication skills with regard to marital conflict in deaf–hearing and deaf–deaf partnerships. Women from the Masarat Center for Development and Empowerment were chosen to be the control and experimental groups established for this research.
The researchers selected fifteen deaf married women and then distributed them in two groups, six women were in the experimental group and nine women represented the control group. Both groups were given an initial test. The experimental group then got a training course in non-verbal communication skills, the course included ten sessions, each lasts for one hour. At the end of these training sessions, members of both groups were required to complete a specialized questionnaire. The results showed, indeed, that training in non-verbal communication skills can significantly reduce or decrease marital conflict in the experimental group. In addition, evidence shows that due research should be undertaken on the differences between deaf–hearing as well as deaf–deaf marital conflicts. The researcher highlighted the theoretical implications of the research, along with other recommendations that concern the role of family and marriage therapists associated to deaf couples.
Keywords: Communication skills, Marital Conflict, Disabled Women, Deafness.
Nursing Practices and Learning in a Complex System
Nilson dos Santos Dias, Victor Meyer Jr. and Diórgenes Falcão Mamédio
Hospital nursing plays a very important role in the promotion of healthcare through its professional practices. The main purpose of this work is to examine practices and routines of the nursing sector that promoted learning, materialized in elements of a complex adaptive system. The qualitative research was constituted in a case study with a cross analysis. The study was conducted in the nursing sector of a large community cancer hospital in Brazil. The data were collected through interviews, non-participant observation and document analysis. An analysis revealed that the main practices that aided learning in the nursing sector included informal and individual interaction among professionals and ongoing education, with training and external events. They also included informal action among professionals, with discussion groups, regular meetings and the relationship between professionals and patients. The results showed the existence of a “learning culture” as one of the principal strategic factors constructed through effective learning practices that helped to improve the provision of nursing services.
Keywords: Complex System. Practices. Learning. Hospital. Nursing
Occupational Stress, Work Engagement and Work Environment as Predictors of Job Satisfaction among Primary School Teachers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Ronald C.N. Oginyi, Ofoke S. Mbam, Martin O.E. Nwoba and Okechukwu D. Nwankwo
This study investigated occupational stress, work engagement and work environment as predictors of job satisfaction among 300 primary school teachers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Data were collected from volunteers through occupational stress scale, work engagement, work environment scale and job satisfaction scale. Consistent with the three hypotheses stated, the results of regression analyses showed that occupational stress, work engagement and work environment were all significantly and positively related to job satisfaction. It has implications for ministries of education, organisations, and individuals to view job satisfaction as key to high productivity. Organisations should encourage and train workers in other to achieve optimal performance. The study concluded that ministries of education need to understand the importance of negative impact of occupational stress, work engagement and work environment in other to maximize job satisfaction of their teachers.
Keywords: Occupational stress, work engagement, work environment, job satisfaction, Primary School Teachers.
Sustainable Development and Quality of Life in Developing Countries: The Nigerian Experience (1980-2012)
Omoniyi, Benjamin B. and Jegede, A. I.
The paper examined the impact of sustainable development on quality of life in Nigeria from 1980-2012. It specifically examined the determinants and the relationship between sustainable development and its indicators on the welfare of Nigerians using Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model as estimation technique. The result revealed that there was positive relationship between sustainable development, investment, secondary school enrolment, inflation, political dummy, pattern of income distribution and lag variable of quality of life. The result also showed that there was negative relationship between corruption, life expectancy, unemployment and quality of life. The result further revealed that lag of value of life, sustainable development, poverty, corruption, investment, secondary school enrolment, unemployment, political dummy and pattern of income distribution became the determinants of quality of life in Nigeria. The paper therefore concluded that sustainable development greatly influenced quality of life in Nigeria. It was therefore recommended that corruption, poverty, unemployment and pattern of income distribution should be highly put under control to permit improved standard of living (quality of life) in Nigeria.
Keywords: Sustainable, Development, Quality, Life, Experience and Autoregressive.
Development of Knowledge Management Ability to Improve Public Service Performance
Onno Sahlania Hamzah and Muh.Rum
The purpose of this study is to know the performance of public service in Makassar local government. Moreover to prove the human resource management to solve the the latest phenomena in delivering service in whole sector which requested by the public. This survey was distributed to a random sample of public officer and the staff who have experience and in charge of in public service. Sample data collected about 32 personal, as well as respondents. Applied technical research by Smart Partial Least Square. Our finding is that the wider the scope of the audit will be an effort to develop human resource in public sector by increase knowledge sharing, while in a case of knowledge sharing will suppress public service performance for their goal. As well as the capability management which is regarded to maintain the quality. The staff and officer in public service is required to focus on keep continuing develop the quality and competence of human resource in Makassar local government.
Keywords: Capability Management, Knowledge sharing, Public service performance.
FATA as an Observant and Recipient of Aid: Narratives of Corruption and International Aid Interventions
Alia Qaim
In order to curtail militancy in FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas), the region received unprecedented local and international assistance with a focus on development. Through my fieldwork on FATA between 2012 and 2014, I continually came across stories and narratives of prevalent corruption and lack of accountability within civilian state institutions as a major reason behind the region’s socio-economic deprivation and underdevelopment. However, when contextualised further, the narratives and stories demonstrated much more complexity which was difficult to grasp without further analysis.
In order to deconstruct these narratives, I have looked at the policy changes and state interventions in FATA since the events of 2001. I have further used participant observations, conversations and document analysis to elaborate and examine different perspectives that give subjective meaning to the FATA region. Through analysing this data, I show how the processes adopted by the state to continuously assimilate, integrate and incorporate FATA into larger state structures through its development interventions also shapes the state structures. This additionally highlights how the fluid and complex nature of state structures follow a shared political and social pattern, rather than divergent patterns as perceived in the discourse on development.
Keywords: Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan, Underdevelopment, Corruption, Development Interventions, International and National Assistance.
Mode D’allaitement, Moment du Sevrage et Performances Cognitives et Socio-Affectives Chez des Enfants du Préscolaire à Abidjan
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between breastfeeding, weaning time and cognitive and socio-affective performance in pre-school children. The sample is composed of 20 children, aged between 2½ and 3 years, from the Joël Dervin school group (Cité SIR, Abidjan). First, a questionnaire was used to determine how they were breastfeeding (maternal and artificial) and the time of weaning (before and after 6 months). Then, using an observation grid of activities, their cognitive and socio-affective performances were determined. Finally, the different performances were related to the modes of breastfeeding and the weaning moments. The results indicate that the mode of breastfeeding and the time of weaning do not influence the cognitive and socio-affective performance of the child, as no hypothesis is confirmed.
Beyond the non-significant results, this study restarts the debate on the impact of breastfeeding and weaning on the cognitive and affective development of infants.
Keywords: Breastfeeding; Weaning; Cognitive performance, socio-emotional performance.
Female Tourist Guides in Jordan: Why So Few?
Mousa Masadeh, Mukhles Al-Ababneh, Samer Al-Sabi and Mamoun Habib Allah
In many Islamic countries, women have limited participation in the workforce, including the tourism and hospitality industry. This study examines the barriers that prevent women from becoming tourist guides in Jordan. Based on qualitative interviews with 34 women from three main tourist cities in Jordan namely, Petra, Amman, Aqaba, Jarash, Ajlun, Madaba and Irbid, a list of factors were identified that can be subsequently subcategorized as barriers and motivators for career development in the tourist industry for women. The responses indicated that women, overall, have an interest in the careers offered by the hospitality and tourism industry. However, certain factors hinder their efforts to secure employment in this field and in the profession of tourist guides, in particular. The main barriers include religious beliefs as well as social traditions and culture around women’s role in the family life, i.e. main caregiver. On the other hand, the positive impact that women’s employment in this field may have on a societal level was emphasized and several areas for improving women’s role in this sector were identified.
Keywords: women, tourist guide, tourism, hospitality, Jordan.
The Effect of Organizational Citizen Behavior on Organizational Commitment: Evidence from Local Government Accountant
Hamid Bone
This paper investigates the question of whether organizational citizenship behavior means the employee or staff of local government accountant which has responsibilities and makes extra effort in this regard to make strong commitment. The concept of organizational commitment includes the confidence in and acceptance of the aim, objective and values of the organization, the will to make more effort than required for the organization and to remain as a member of that organization, the identification with the objectives of the stakeholders of the organization, and the internalization of its values. Therefore, the concept of professional local government accountant commitment is as important as the concept of organizational commitment. Professional accountant commitment is related to featuring the professional identity, making effort for the profession, and to being committed to professional objectives, values, norms and ethical principles. The purpose of the present research is to determine the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors which having two basic dimensions—altruism and generalized compliance (Smith, Organ, & Near, 1983), and professional commitment which consist of affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. Data was collected from 32 local accountant practice. Primer data’s collected through questionnaire and depth interview to local accountant around East Kalimantan Province. The scale of Podsakoff et al. (1990) was used as the organizational citizenship behavior scale, and the scales developed by Meyer, Allen and Smith (1993) were used as the organizational and professional commitment scales. As a result of the research, a significant normative commitment was determined between the organizational commitment behaviors of the accountant practice, the “affective commitment” and “continuance commitment” is less determined of the OCBS. A positive and significant relationship was observed between organizational and professional commitments and organizational citizenship behavior. However, the results indicated that professional commitment is more related to the organizational citizenship behavior than organizational commitment. Professional and organizational of accountant commitments were determined to explain the organizational citizenship behavior perceptions of the local government. As a result, professional commitments of the local accountant were found to be higher than their organizational commitments.
Keywords: Organizational Citizen Behavior, Organizational Commitment, Affective Commitment, Continuance Commitment, Normative Commitment, Local Government Accountant.
Perceived Target Setting and Job Involvement among employees of Commercial Banks in Nigeria: The Moderating Role of Perceived Organizational Support
Emmanuel A. Agu, Leonard l. Ugwu and Gabriel C. Kanu
This study investigated the moderating role of perceived organizational support on the relationship between target setting and job involvement of employees of commercial banks in Nigeria. A total of 255 employees from 15 commercial banks within Enugu metropolis participated in the study. The Target Setting Index, Job Involvement Index and Survey of Perceived Organizational Support were used to obtain responses from the participants. The results indicated that worker’s displeasure towards the use of targets had a significant negative relationship with job involvement with an associated regression co-efficient of (β =-.25, P<.01), showing that target setting (TS) predicts job involvement (JI). Result also showed that POS predict job involvement with associated positive interaction with job involvement (β = .78, p< .001). The result of regression analysis further indicated an insignificant effect of POS as a moderator and as a buffer in the negative relationship between target setting and job involvement (Target Setting x POS). It only accounted for additional 0.1% variance in job involvement. The findings, implications for management and limitations of the study were discussed and suggestions for further research were made.
Keywords: Perceived target setting, Job involvement, Perceived organizational support.