European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 56 No 1
January-February, 2018
Contractual Arrangements in Artisanal Fishing in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria
Namso N. Frank and Gabriel S. Umoh
One and the most important determinants of catch level in seining artisanal fishing is availability and cost of credit. Consequently, fishermen find solace in contract fishing and modern theory of contract has been proven to be convenient because it can rationalise “ex-post” contract arrangement so that no party is better or worse off. This study set out to examine, characterise and document the nature, process, degree, strength and weaknesses of the different contracting models in the study area. This study found that indeed, contract fishing is a common feature in the fishing communities of Niger Delta region. A total of four basic types of artisanal contract models were indentified and characterized. There are: Contributory Fishing Input Financing (Co-FIF), Sole Fishing Input Financing (So-FIF), Support Fishing Input Financing (Su-FIF) and Hire Purchase Fishing Input Financing (Hi-PuFIF). In all cases, the different contracts arrangements were outcomes of the fishers’ need to adjust to the different production and market conditions surrounding the artisanal fishery sector. It appears to be a promising institutional arrangement to facilitate fishermen access to an array of fishing inputs which they are typically excluded and it enhances catch level of the poor fishers.
Keywords: Contract Fishing. Contributory Fishing Input Financing (Co-FIF), Sole Fishing Input Financing (So-FIF), Support Fishing Input Financing (Su-FIF), Hire Purchase Fishing Input Financing (Hi-PuFIF), Artisanal Fishing. Niger Delta. Nigeria.
Super Powers Conspiracy and the Unending Civil War in Syria: an Analysis
Eze Raphael C. and James E. Agena
The desire of aggrieved Syrians to replicate the scenario that played out by the Arab spring revolt of 2011 which culminated in the ouster of the regimes of President El Albadine Ben Ali of Tunisia and Hosni Mubarak of Egypt in their home country was violently resisted by the Syrian president Bashar al-Assad. This resulted in the killing of hundreds of demonstrators with several more thrown into jail. The Syrian civil war is currently adjudged the deadliest in the 21st century. This study is set out to probe the actual reason for the intervention by Russia and United States of America in the Syrian civil war. Utilizing the concept of ‘National Interest’ as a framework of analysis, the paper opines that, while it is a welcomed development for such intervention, with the aim of bringing succor to the suffering people of Syria, emerging facts point to the realities that both Russia and U.S.A. have different national interest-oriented agenda, thus leading to the unending nature of the war. To this end, the paper recommends that the United Nations should step up its mediation strategy by way of political solution as military panacea appears abortive.
Keywords: Super Powers, Conspiracy, Civil War, Syria.
Team Based Management Approach and Organisational Performance
Abner Ishaku Prince and Agbaeze E.K
This study examined the relationship between team management based approach and organizational performance measured by job satisfaction. The study adopted the survey research design and data were obtained from primary sources through the use of likert scales questionnaire. The population of the study comprised of all management and non management staff of commercial banks in Enugu. However, the study purposively selected four banks and the sample size of two hundred and thirty-nine (239) respondents was derived using the Taro Yamane sample size determination formula. The data were analysed using the Spearman rank correlation. The findings from this study revealed that team based management approach had a positive relationship with performance. The study concluded that team based management approach enhances organisation performance. We thus recommended that bank management should encourage the use of teams in fostering integration among staff as to enhance performance.
Keywords: Team-based, Management, Performance, Organisation.
Structure and Organizational Performance in the Nigerian Banking System
Ogosi, Chinedu Daniel and Agbaeze, E.K
The main objective of this study is to examine structure and performance of Nigerian banks. The M-form theory of the firm structure was adopted to explore the effect of structure on performance of five selected banks in Nigeria for eleven (11) year period 2005-2015.The panel data set obtained from the financial statements and accounts of the banks were analyzed using correlation and regression test statistic. From the result obtained, it was revealed that all the structure parameters had a positive relationship with performance. Again, the study revealed that structure parameters (bank division/department, bank branches) had positive and significant impact on performance while the number of employees had positive and insignificant impact on performance. The corporate governance proxy introduced indicates that the number of members of Board of Directors was also statistically significant and positive. We therefore concludes that structure have a significant impact on performance. The study recommends amongst others that Banks in the country should ensure that bank branches are located with the focus of deployment of a resilient structure. This will enable banks to focus on efficiency and strong collaboration across all the operating entities thereby ensuring a significant role in sustaining the growth momentum while addressing challenges that will ensure long-term success of the banks.
Keywords: Structure, Organizational Performance, Banking System.
Causes of Early Divorce as Perceived by Young People in Sharjah: A Field Study
Fakir M. Al Gharaibeh
This preliminary study explores the causes for early divorce quoted by young men and women in Sharjah, UAE. Field analysis of the data collected through a questionnaire distributed to a convenience sample of 865 individuals was conducted. This analysis reveals that the main causes for early divorce, in order of significance, are: factors related to poor communication, primarily unwarranted interference by the in-laws (cited by 72% of the sample), followed by those related to the attitude and personality of the husband especially the display of a patronizing and dismissive conduct towards the wife as mentioned by 71.2%. Issues relating to the intimate marital relations between the couple are quoted by 70.6% of the subjects, only 0.6% higher than financial factors, the most prominent of which is the husband’s extreme stinginess especially towards meeting family needs. This paper also proposes a number of recommendations based on the results of the field study that might be of interest to social workers and decision makers in family and social institutes in the UAE.
Keywords: Early divorce, Youth, Social Work, Family.
Management Development: A Conceptual Framework Based on Literature Review: A Research Agenda
Catherine Lagat and Muathe Stephen Makau
The contribution of Human resources to the overall organizational well-being cannot be overlooked as these resources have time and again been regarded as important assets to the organization. Organizations develop their managers with the hope that they will transfer the attained knowledge towards organizational performance. This study undertook a comprehensive review of literature on management development to establish what other researchers have established in the link between management development and organizational performance. Studies conducted on management development and organizational performance have linked outcomes such as attraction and retention of key employees, improved employee relations to improved efficiency in terms of quality of products and more contented employees and customers. Location of the firms in terms of country has also been seen to have an influence on the strategic fit and the position of management development in the overall organization’s strategy. Three theories Social exchange theory, Resource Based Theory (RBV) and Path goal theory were reviewed in demonstrating the contribution of developmental programs to the overall organizational performance. Most of the studies reviewed used descriptive research design and descriptive and inferential statistics in the analysis of data with the collection of data mainly being through the use of questionnaires and interviews. The studies were cross sectional in nature. The studies reviewed pointed out the existence of a link between Management development and organizational performance through other human resource outcomes although it’s not clear whether the enhanced performance can be attributed to management development programs alone. However some questions as to whether there is any return on the investment in the management development programs still linger and some studies saw the programs as a waste of resources. Gaps in the development programs have led to organizations seeking to get managers from outside the organization enhancing competition for highly developed managers. This study assessed literature from various studies on management development to see how it affects organizational performance. It also sought to identify any arguments and gaps that exist in the literature on the subject.
Keywords: Management Development, organizational performance, coaching, formal training programs.
Empirical Study of Rural Banking and Its Impact on Farmers in China: A Case Study of Jintang, Sichuan Province
Stephen Bannerman and Gang Fu
This study attempt to empirically investigate the rural banking and its impact on farmers in China, with much focus on the farmers in Jintang- Sichuan province of China. Research questionnaires were developed and distributed to a sample of 760 farmers and 3 different banks in Jintang. Evidentially from the findings of the study indicates that although the various rural banks in China particularly that of Jintang County are willing to support the farmers with credit facilities, farmers refuse to access the loan because they believe that much information asymmetry with the banks. Regression and SPSS software analysis was the major statistical tool used to analyze the data collected from the rural banks and farmers in Jintang were used for the analysis.
Keywords: Loan, rural banks, farmers.
Land Resource Contestations and Management of Communal Violent Conflicts in Ebonyi State of Nigeria: Implications for Governance and Development (1999-2016)
Nwobashi Humphrey Nwefuru, and Nnaji Fidelis C.
Various degrees of eruptions and spread of communal violent conflicts over claim of ownership of land resources by communal groupings in Ebonyi State since 1999 when Nigeria achieved democratic rule have created a state of palpable fear among Ebonyians with the attendant loss of lives and property and displacement of thousands of people. Communal violent conflicts have caused huge disarray in the state’s internal security situation and reached critical proportions, yet no systematic effort has been made to analyse their implications for governance and development of the state. This study examines communal violent conflicts in Ebonyi State between 1999-2016, the efforts of government in addressing the menace and the implications they have posed for good governance and overall development of the State. The study is descriptive and data were obtained from secondary sources. The study is anchored on a theory of cognitive dissonance. The study argues that lack of extensive and systematic peace building and peace advocacy blueprints as well as the reactive mechanism instead of proactive mechanism employed by government are responsible for the continual outbreaks and persistence of communal violent conflicts in Ebonyi State. The study recommends that Ebonyi State should develop peace building and peace advocacy blueprints for the State and develop a proactive mechanism that can detect early warming signals where communal violent conflict may likely occur in the State.
Keywords: Communal, violent, conflict, governance, development
Contextual Factors Affecting Social Work Career Choice among Qatari Students
Abdulnasser Saleh Alyafei
Career selection is deterministic and depends on a set of factors. While the international literature has documented that the social work profession is correlated with numerous characteristics, e.g., demographic and family psychosocial history, age, and sex, there is still no study that has examined the potential factors that may contribute to social work career choice in the Qatari context. The present study aims to investigate contextual aspects that may impact the career preferences of social work students. The potential demographic factors included age, cultural background (Qatari, non-Qatari), socio-economic status, and parents’ educational backgrounds. A total of 166 undergraduate students aged 19-38 years (mean= 28.06 SD= 5.54) enrolled in a social work program were administered the Social Work Career Influence Questionnaire (SWCIQ). The SWCIQ-Ar was validated in the Qatari context and showed excellent construct validity and reliability. The results showed a positive association between age and family and personal experiences as a factor that affected the choice of pursuing a social work profession. The results also revealed that participants articulated several issues that affected their choice to choose a social work profession. Their job choices were affected by family and personal experiences, being a therapist, profession social respect, and the social change duty associated with the career, and these factors were sequentially influenced by their socio-economic status, marital status, and parents’ educational levels. These findings are important for Qatar university policy makers to improve the efficiency and quality of social work in Qatar.
Keywords: Social Work Profession, Society, Qatar, Qatari Society.
Cultivating Development: The State and FATA Pukhtuns Encounter through the Discourse of Development
Alia Qaim
The events following the 9/11 attacks on the twin towers in the USA dramatically brought Afghanistan and its neighbouring region FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas) to world attention. In an attempt to curtail militancy, FATA received unprecedented local and international assistance with a focus on development. The local complex dynamics in FATA are considered a result of scarce resources, resolvable by providing opportunities to people in FATA. But this approach, despite recognising the economic need of the region, fails to take into account how the state and its interventions interact with the local ways of life in FATA and what kind of outcomes political economy of such structures produce from these interactions. This study seeks to establish that viewing FATA’s underdevelopment as a result of neglect and lack of development initiatives by the Government of Pakistan (GoP) presents a partial reality. Through analysing the data and reports, the study outlines that GoP has carried out development initiatives. However these interventions failed to produce the outcomes as perceived from these interventions. By analysing the interventions in the livelihood sector by the GoP, this paper argues that the state’s perception of change through ‘development’ requires a more nuanced understanding of local realities in FATA.
Keywords: Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan, Pukhtuns, Underdevelopment, Political Economy of Development, Livelihood Development, Agriculture interventions, Government of Pakistan, Political Culture, International Assistance, Trade, Illegal economy.