European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 55 No 3
September-October, 2017
Activities of Cultist and Measures for Eradicating Cultism among Secondary School Students in Nigeria: Implication for Child Development and Counselling
Ezema Victor Sunday and Otu Mkpoikanke Sunday
The there is alarming rate of consequences of cultism. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the activities of cultism and possible strategies for curbing cultism among secondary school students. The study adopted a descriptive survey with population of the comprised of the teachers and students of the secondary schools in the South-East States of Nigeria estimated at 2023 teachers and 15000 senior secondary three (SS3) students and sample of 518 teachers and 200 students. Two questionnaires entitled Activities of cultism questionnaire and Measures for eradicating cultism questionnaire were used to collect data for the study. The study revealed that students’ cultists bully junior students, students cultist intimidate teachers, they rape female students, they engage in incessant fighting, they plan and execute riots in schools, and they easily break school rules. The findings showed a significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of principals and teachers on the one hand, and students on another hand on the initiatives necessary for eradicating cultism in secondary schools. It is the submission of the researcher that by employing sound initiatives identified by this study, cultism will be eradicated from the secondary schools. Such measures include among other things, provision of guidance and counseling, moral education, emphasis on character building over academic achievements, effective monitoring of students, and organization of career week every term.
Keywords: cultist, eradicating, cultism, child development, counselling.
Implications of Friedrich Nietzsche’s Master-Slave Morality in Inter-Personal Relationship
Ezema, Victor Sunday and A. C. Areji
From time immemorial, mankind has always been confronted with the issue of the origin of morality. The issue of morality has grouped philosophers such as Protagoras, Callicles, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Epictetus, Aquinas, Augustine, Machiavelli, Thomas Hobbes, Immanuel Kant, Jeremy Bentham, Henri Bergson and Soren Kierkegaard into different camps with divergent views. While some believe that God is the source of morality, others situate morality in man. Friedrich Nietzsche emerged with master-slave morality. He championed as master morality the morality of the strong-willed. The essence of master morality is nobility. Qualities cherished in master morality include, among others, courage, open-mindedness and an accurate sense of worth. Nietzsche referred to the traditional morality, which aims at the common good, as slave morality. It is the morality of the weak. Silly ideas, according to him, like humility and equality are promulgated in slave morality. He, therefore, declared a destructive war against slave morality and called for a revaluation of morals. Revaluation implies that all the stronger motives, which appear in disguised forms, under false name and false valuation, should be uncovered through critical analysis. With this in mind, the emergence of a superman who takes the place of God and serves as an embodiment of master morality becomes inevitable. This is possible by means of the will to power. Possible implications were drawn from master-slave morality in inter-personal relationship. Moral values become relative; irresponsible freedom becomes the order of the day; while anarchy and oppression are celebrated. The specific objectives of this work were to expose the different theories of morality, analyze Nietzsche’s moral theory, evaluate the implications of Nietzsche’s master-slave morality, determine its effects in inter-personal relationship.
Status and Promotion of Moral Instruction in Nigerian Primary Schools
Ezema Victor Sunday, J. U. Ibiam and Mkpoikanke S. Otu
The main purpose of this study was to inquire into the promotion of moral instruction in primary schools in Nigeria. Three research questions and three null hypotheses, tested at 0.05 level of significance, guided the study. Descriptive research design was used for the study with a population of 225 primary school teachers in 38 primary schools, education secretary and clergy men in the area. The instruments for data collection were questionnaire and interview guide entitled “Promoting Moral Instruction in Primary Schools (PMIPSQ)”. The questionnaire was administered to 225 primary school teachers while the interview was administered to the education secretary and clergy men within the area. Data collected through questionnaire were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for the research questions and t-test statistic for the hypotheses while data from the interviews were subjected to qualitative analysis. The results of the study showed that moral instruction has a low status in primary schools in Nigeria possibly; that promotional strategies of moral instruction in use in primary schools include advising pupils on importance of good behaviour during assemblies, checking lateness to school, punishing late comers, punishing those who fight, punishing those who steal, teaching pupils to respect and obey their parents, asking pupils who commit serious offences to bring their parents; and that the resources and facilities that could be employed in the promotion of moral instruction in primary schools include parents, guardians, story books, holy bible, cane, clergy men, counselors and other resource persons. It was recommended, among other, that moral instruction should be ensured and enforced in Nigerian primary school system as it was when missions were in control of primary and secondary education.
Keywords: Status, promotion, moral instruction, Nigerian Primary Schools.
Pratiques Therapeutiques Locales Et Maladies Infantiles Dans Le District Sanitaire De Daloa (Centre – Ouest Cote d’Ivoire)
ADJET A. Abel, ZADOU Z. A. Didié and MAFOU K. Combo
Depuis quelques années, la question sanitaire infantile demeure au cœur des politiques sanitaires en Côte d’Ivoire. En effet, le Plan National de Développement Sanitaire (PNDS) 2016 – 2020 qui accorde une primauté à la santé du nouveau – né et de l’enfant. Il envisage améliorer leur santé d’ici 2020 et réduire à 50 % les maladies. Des efforts sont consentis en ce sens. L’accent est mis sur la gratuité ciblée des soins pour les enfants de 0 à 5 ans en consultation et souffrants de maladies, dans les centres de santé. Malgré ces initiatives, il ressort une forme de persistance des populations malades (parents et enfants) à fréquenter les acteurs traditionnels de soins. Dans un contexte d’adaptation thérapeutique généralisé, on observe, chez les populations résidantes de Daloa au Centre-Ouest de Côte d’Ivoire, la construction et la persistance de pratiques de soin traditionnel visant à détourner les populations malades des centres de santé.
En s’appuyant sur le cas significatif des thérapeutes traditionnelles de Daloa, cet article vise à étudier les pratiques thérapeutiques locales dans la prise en charge des maladies infantiles. Pour ce faire, cette étude s’est déroulée dans le district sanitaire de Daloa. Les données ont été collectées auprès de 07 femmes qui traitent des maladies infantiles au grand marché de la ville de Daloa et 36 femmes qui ont eu recours aux thérapeutes traditionnelles et vendeuses de plantes pendant cette étude. C’est une étude qualitative et descriptive. Les données ont été collectées à partir de grille d’observation, d’observation directe, des guides d’entretien.
Il ressort de cette étude que le traitement traditionnel des maladies infantiles est essentiellement fait à base de plantes. Les thérapeutes traditionnelles et vendeuses de plantes traitent le paludisme, l’anémie, la diarrhée dont les appellations proviennent de leurs observations et de leur diagnostique. Les coûts de traitement varient de 100 Francs Cfa à 5000 F Cfa. Selon les parents des enfants malades rencontrés, l’inefficacité de la médecine moderne pour certains soins, l’accessibilité culturelle et l’accessibilité financière des thérapeutes les motivent à recourir à leurs services de soins.
Keywords: Maladies infantiles, Traitement traditionnel, Plantes médicinales, Daloa
Evaluation of the Effects of Marketing Strategies on Consumer Patronage of Restaurants in Enugu (A Study of Mr. Bigg’s)
Okolo Victor O
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of marketing strategies on consumer patronage of restaurants in Enugu (A study of Mr. Bigg’s). The objectives of the study are to investigate whether individual determinants and social factors influence consumer patronage of Mr Bigg’s, to assess whether consumer choice of restaurants has any significant impact on patronage of Mr. Bigg’s, to examine the extent of relationship marketing practices on patronage of Mr. Bigg’s, to assess the extent of overall consumer perception on patronage of Mr. Bigg’s and to discover the effect of consumers loyalty strategies on consumer patronage of Mr. Bigg’s. Survey research method was chosen for the study. The study population comprises consumers for Mr. Bigg’s in Enugu and as such, the population is unknown. A sample size of 340 was determined using Topman’s formula for determining sample size. For the validity of the instrument, the questionnaire was vetted by research professionals in Business and Management Sciences based on face validity in terms of relevance to the subject matter, objective of the study, coverage of the content areas, appropriateness of language usage and clarity of purpose. The value of the test of reliability is 0.90 which was conducted using Cronbach’s Alpha. Chi-square statistical tool was used to test the formulated hypotheses. The test of hypotheses led to the following major findings: individual determinants and social factors have a significant influence on consumer patronage of Mr. Bigg’s, consumer choice has a significant impact on the patronage of Mr. Bigg’s, relationship marketing practices has a significant effect on the patronage of Mr. Bigg’s, consumer perception has a significant effect on the patronage of Mr. Bigg’s and finally, consumers’ loyalty strategies have a significant effect on the patronage of Mr. Bigg’s. Following the findings, the study therefore recommended that marketing managers should concentrate their attention on developing more and improved effective marketing strategies for retaining and sustaining their customers by satisfying their unlimited needs and wants.
Keywords: Means-End Chain Theory, Consumer behaviour, Fast food restaurant, Consumer satisfaction, Relationship marketing, Buyer decision making process and Customer Loyalty.
Artificial Ethnicity and the Hindrance of the Emergence of Cultural Legitimation in Jordan
Husein Alothman, Mohammed Al-Hourani and Abdel Rahman Ahmed
This study revisits the concept of cultural legitimation as originally formulated by Talcott Parsons and applies it to Jordan. In the Jordanian case, the development of cultural legitimation would have to be the task of the state. This is fundamentally contrary to Parsons’ original formulation of the concept. Since its inception, the Jordanian state has not yet taken steps to unify the Jordanian society out of the multitude of its sub-national identities and concomitant social differentiations. Instead, it has, in its quest for regime legitimacy and stability, manipulated and continues to manipulate sub-national identities. This has deepened social divisions and differentiations which continue to reproduce themselves because of continuous state manipulation. The result is an artificial ethnicity which has precluded the development of a unified national identity and society and, by implication, cultural legitimation in Jordan.
Keywords: Artificial ethnicity, cultural legitimation, state, Jordan.
Community Participation in Sustainable Urban Development: An Applied Approach to the Impact of the New Barwa City and the Neighbouring Areas
Abdulnasser Saleh Alyafei
The state of Qatar is implementing an intense program of urban development based on successive plans and strategies. Barwa City, one of several projects included in such program, is an affordable and integrated city that provides contemporary homes for families and delivers all the amenities and facilities that a modern community requires. The residences in Barwa come with a full range of facilities toward creating a safe and friendly neighborhood. Sustainability advent in development sciences has led Qatari planners to apply evolving notions of sustainability to the contemporary debate and applications over how cities and regions should be reformed, revitalized, and redeveloped. Thus, the authorities now consider social impact assessment (SIA) as a core component of the planning process for the Barwa City project. SIA should be used to reflect the decision-making process of the public’s participation. This view is attributed to the argument that sustainable development must take into account local socioeconomic and cultural factors. Another argument is that the evaluation of the Barwa City project will be conducted along with local people and will help maintain social equality in communal decision-making. The current study aims to evaluate the socioeconomic impacts of the establishment of the New Barwa City on the neighboring areas through the public participation approach. To achieve this objective, a survey consisting of four main parts was designed, and data were collected through personal interviews with 204 persons living in the neighborhoods near the Barwa City project. The results show that the implementation of the project is expected to have several positive impacts, such as fulfilling the housing shortage. However, some negative impacts are also expected, including environmental concerns related to the proximity of the industrial area. The results further indicate that the majority of respondents (70%) are in favor of the Barwa City project, mainly due to the entire range of facilities that would be established there. Nevertheless, 13% of interviewees expressed their objection to the project because of social and environmental concerns, such as the buried sewage pool on which the project would be built and the high groundwater level and its accompanying issues.
Keywords: Net Income, Comprehensive Income, Performance Evaluation, Other Comprehensive Income Items
Social Conflicts and Insecurity in Nigeria: Where Lies the Future?
Itumo, Anthony, Udeuhele, Godwin Ikechukwu and Aro, Gibert Chukwu
Since the creation of Nigerian state via the British fiat, the unholy political marriage has continued to wobble from one challenge to another. In less than six years of its political independence, the country suffered a political convulsion which unfortunately led to the abortion of the First Republic in 1966 and subsequent thirty months civil war. The emergence of the military in governance before and after the civil war came with the varying degrees of hopes and aspirations that the turmoil and insecurity which hitherto afflicted the country would be fundamentally addressed via a sound political structure that could bring about good governance. These hopes were diametrically dashed as the country continued to witness various forms of social upheavals attesting to high level of institutional violence under different military regimes. After many years of intermittent military dictatorships, Nigerians sought relief in a democratic transition which midwifed a civil rule on the 29th of May, 1999. Since the civil rule came on board insecurity and instability have continued to reign supreme across the country. This study is set out to unearth the causes of social conflicts in Nigeria, how its strains promote the upsurge of insecurity across the country and to recommend the possible remedies. The materials for the study were drawn from secondary sources while content analytical technique was used for data analysis. The theoretical framework that anchored the study is the fragile state theory.
Keywords: Social conflicts, insecurity, Nigeria, instability and fragile state
Polyphonic voices and political discourse: Hermila Galindo’s request of women’s suffrage to the 1917 Constituent Congress in Mexico
Rosa María Valles Ruiz, Alejandra Araiza Díaz, Azul Kikey Castelli Olvera and Xochitl Andrea Sen Santos
Goal: To present polyphonic characteristics in the argumentative discourse of the initiative presented by Hermila Galindo to the 1917 Constituent Congress to demand women’s suffrage rights in Mexico.
Method: To identify, the essential (semantic and stylistic) elements in Hermila Galindo’s argumentative speech associated with the existing sociopolitical context in the first decades of the twentieth century based on Osvald Ducrot's polyphonic theory of enunciation, Roman Jakobson's language functions, and Daniel Prieto Castillo's stylistic analysis.
Results: Discursive actions in Hermila Galindo’s text were characterized by their argumentative nature and a blunt use of polyphony, which included contemporary characters such as John Stuart Mill and Emilio Castelar, among others, to support her ideas or reject others’, such as Alvaro Obregon’s.
Conclusions: The model used in this study, based on Jacobson’s, Ducrot’s, and Castillo’s theoretical proposals, was suitable for the analysis of Hermila Galindo’s speech, uttered a century ago. An intensive use of polyphony was detected, which even surpassed known schemas and introduced more possibilities for analysis.

Roles and Social Adaptability of Bangladeshi Migrant Workers in Commercialised Farming of Cameron Highlands, Malaysia
A.H.M. Zehadul Karim, Rohaiza Rokis and Norasikin Basir
This paper studies the roles and social adaptability of Bangladeshi plantation workers in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia who are involved in the newly-devised commercialised agricultural farming. Cameron Highlands has recently been identified as a strategic farming area for which many foreign workers including the Bangladeshis have been attracted to perform multifarious activities relating to plantation agriculture. Due to having profound socio-cultural background and proper farming orientation in their country of origin, these Bangladeshi workers are performing positively in the activities at various plantations. The findings of this research indicate that the Bangladeshi migrant workers in particular are adopting some special mechanisms for potential farming in Cameron Highlands but in terms of social adaptability, these workers are facing some challenges in relation to their socio-cultural interaction and living. The identification of these problems relating to foreign workers and understanding their intricate role and activities will allow policy planners to take note of future strategies in regard to protecting the labour sector of this economy.
Keywords: Plantation workers from Bangladesh, Cameron Highlands, commercialised agriculture, roles and social adaptability.