European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 55 No 2
August, 2017
The Regulatory Frame of the Principle of Good Faith in Consumer transactions in the Palestinian Legal System
Abdalraouf M. A. ALSenawi
The aim of this paper is to investigate the Regulatory Frame of the Principle of Good Faith in Consumer transaction in The Palestinian Legal System. It begins with determining whether this principle is provided in both of Islamic law and the provisions of national measures, in order to detect the efficiency of this organization to keep balance in consumer transactions, via making sure that both parties at a similar position at the time of making the agreement in addition to its period of implementation. The article recommends the transposition of the European measures provided in the European Directive (93/13) of unfair terms in consumer transactions in Palestine.
Keywords: The principle of Good Faith, Pre-contractual good faith, Substance good faith, Objective good faith, Islamic consumer law, Palestinian Consumer law.
Identity in the Age of Globalization: A Study among the Students of Public Sector Universities of Punjab Province, Pakistan
Shaista Mariam, Umair Ahmed
In the present study, developed a paper and pencil measure, Global Identification Survey (GIS), which holds degrees of participants from which they identify with local or global culture. A new type is analyzed, with the behavior and behavior in one of the following four types: “locally encapsulated” (high in local identification, low in global identification), “globally assimilated” (low in local identification, high in global identification), “alienated” (low in both local and global identification), or “bicultural” (high in both local and global identification). The Global Identity Survey (GIS) was directed to a sample of 713 undergraduate students (mean age = 20.33, sd = 5.67) from a G.CUniversity, Faisalabad (n= 102), Sargodha university (n=231), Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi, (n=103), the university of Punjab, Lahore (n=75), and a University of Gujarat (n=202). The first hypothesis in the present study was partly partially confirmed that the Lahore Base University would be very prominent in dealing with open global exposure to global factors, identifying the search, and other samples. In addition, they will get more and more bio-cultural and globally qualified, while other samples will have the maximum number of locally restricted. Our second hypothesis was also confirmed by our study, which showed that as a whole collectively the cultural group is the minimum level of identity and the least amount of psychological symptoms. Further analysis will be discussed.
Viollet-le-Duc’s Definition of “Style” and Its Significance For Architectural History and Design
Kemal Reha Kavas
Starting from the Italian Renaissance, art history has categorized works of art according to certain periods. The conventional method was developed by Vasari, the Renaissance author, who put forward a cyclical model where periods of art present rises and declines. In this theoretical framework conformity with the artistic standards of the Classical age was a symptom of rise in artistic quality and civilization. However especially during the 19th century, this conventional framework was challenged. The art of the Medieval, especially the Gothic period, has been reviewed through a different point of view. The authority of Classical age as a universal artistic standard was contested. Within this historical development, the characteristic definition of “style” by Viollet-le-Duc, the French architect of 19th century, has been quite significant for architectural history and design. Foreseeing modern architecture, Viollet-le-Duc’s “style” referred to the ancient Greek, Roman and Gothic constructions. In this framework, “style” is associated with structural rationalism instead of form and existed only in those “great traditions”. This definition underlies a characteristic architectural historiography oriented towards rationalist design and has paved the way to the philosophy of the early 20th century modern architecture. The objective of this paper is to highlight the significance of this characteristic definition of “style,” which has been overlooked so far and to uncover its future perspectives for architectural design.
Keywords: Style, Architecture, History, Design, Structure, Rationalism, Modern.
Aging Populations: an Evaluation of Health and Social Activity between Germany and Finland, in the European Context
Tiago Henriques and Ricardo Gouveia Rodrigues
European countries face a profound demographic transformation linked to various trends, including the rapid aging of the population. The World Health Organization has appealed successively to the importance of adopting policies that promote active aging as a way of promoting the quality of life of the elderly population. Health status and social isolation are among vulnerabilities that influence an active aging. The purpose of this study is to portray the senior health and social conditions of Germany and Finland while it is confronted with the reality of 17 countries of European Union, through data provided by European Social Survey. The results show that the values were consistent with the demographic trend of feminization of aging populations, individuals cohabit with less than 2 members, age had a negative impact on health and the existence of a slightly tendency towards a better perception of health among men.
Keywords: Aging populations. Health Status and Social Activities.
Le paradoxe entre bas niveau des élèves et taux élevés de réussites scolaires en Côte d’Ivoire : cas de deux établissements primaires (public et privé) d’Abobo
Zamble Bi Zou Ambroise, Bini Koffi Roland, Ya Kouamé Akissi Inès
Cet article, fondé sur une approche qualitative, a mobilisé divers acteurs de l’enseignement primaire, notamment, les chefs d’établissement, les inspecteurs pédagogiques, les instituteurs et les parents d’élèves de deux établissements de la commune d’Abobo. L’étude lève le voile sur le paradoxe entre le bas niveau des élèves et la croissance des taux d’admission en classe supérieure et aux examens en fins d’année. L’analyse dialectique des données a permis de mettre en relief les éléments factuels à l’origine d’une telle situation paradoxale dans les établissements primaires publics et privés en Côte d’Ivoire. Les taux de réussite de fin d’année sont en grande partie le produit de la tricherie collective, des facilités d’admission encouragées par l’Etat, les chefs d’établissement, les instituteurs et les parents d’élèves. Ces taux ne reflètent pas le niveau de la majorité des élèves. Cette réalité paradoxale est le produit de mesures inadaptées et incomprises, de défaillances dans l’évaluation du niveau des élèves, du laissez-faire de l’Etat, du niveau des instituteurs recrutés et les conditions dans lesquelles évolue la politique de l’enseignement au primaire.
Keywords: Établissement primaire, niveau de connaissance, taux de réussite, système éducatif, paradoxe.
Implications of Adopting the Tenets of Public Relations As A Marketing Communications Strategy Towards Discouraging Tax Evasion among Tax Payers in South-Eastern Nigeria
Okolo Victor O., Obikeze Chinedum O., Ugonna Ikechukwu A and Nebo Gerald N
Taxation generally is regarded as a sustainable source of government revenue due to the stability and certainty of the tax system. Unlike other sources of revenue, taxes are constantly available in so far as economic activity is carried on in the society. However, every tax system is faced with the problem of evasion and avoidance. Tax evasion is an outright, dishonest action whereby tax payer endeavors to reduce his tax; liability through the use of illegal means, while tax avoidance arises in a situation where the tax payer arranges his financial affairs in a way that would make him pay the least possible amount of tax without infringing the legal rules. These acts include amongst others failure to pay withholding tax; failure to submit returns; omission or misstatement of items from returns; claiming relief of children that do not exist; understating income; documenting fictitious transactions; overstating expenses as well as failure to answer queries. The Nigerian situation seems unique when viewed against the scale of corrupt practices prevalent in Nigeria. Under direct personal taxation as practiced in Nigeria, the major problems lies in the collection of the taxes. However, despite tax provision meant to plug loopholes through which taxable persons can minimize tax liability, all kinds of avoidance schemes to minimize or escape tax liability are often employed by taxpayers. Tax evasion and tax avoidance have moved swiftly up the development agenda in recent years because of its effects on government revenue, therefore, it is against the importance of tax revenue on economic growth that this study sought to examine the impact of tax evasion and avoidance on growth of the Nigerian economy; increase in government revenue and creation of employment in South East, Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research design and data were obtained through questionnaire and oral interview. Three hypotheses were proposed and tested. Simple percentages statistical techniques were used to test the hypotheses. The results emanating from the findings suggest that mass media as a PR tool to a large extent positively influences tax evasion in South-Eastern Nigeria. Again, the study also revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between government quality service delivery (tax dividends) and tax evasion in SouthEast, Nigeria. Finally, the study revealed that training of staff as a PR tool has a significant positive correlation with tax evasion in Soutt-Eastern Nigeria. The research recommends amongst others that the Federal, State and Local governments should urgently fully modernize and automate all its tax system, imbibing the practices and strategies of public relations, train its tax officials to meet international best practices. This will greatly help in curbing tax evasion as tax officials will be knowledgeable of all the schemes of tax evaders.
Keywords: Tax evasion, Public relations, Mass media, Service quality, Behaviour change communication theory/Reasoned action theory and Innovation adoption theory.
Theoretical Pillars of Power Sharing Theory
Ramin Mafakheri
Lijphart’s power sharing theory entails both normative and empirical approaches. From the empirical perspective it can be argued that the theory was constructed based on the study and observation of the sociopolitical structure of some Western divided societies with stable democracies. Besides, the theory was developed by analyzing new successful case studies from different evidential perspectives. From the normative perspective, while the two non-majoritarian models of democracy are recommended for gaining stability and high quality, it certainly deals with the normative aspect of the theory. Accordingly, in order to gain a better understanding of power-sharing theory, it also seems necessary to substantially illustrate the theoretical pillars of the theory. In this sense, while the major boundaries of the theory in the discipline will be discovered, its roots within the classical theories of power-dividing are scrutinized. This article will also be concerned with distinguishing the boundaries and components of the theory in comparison with two other seminal approaches in democratic studies; Almond’s typology of political systems and Lipset’s theory of cross-cutting cleavages.
Keywords: Power sharing, division of power, democratic stability, democratic quality, constitutional design, cross-cutting cleavages theory.
Syntactic and Cognitive analysis of Compounds in Romeo and Juliet
Rana A.Saeed Almaroof and Kais A. Kadhim
Our understanding of compounds is not limited to the perception of synthetic relations that these compounds may have, but rather it incorporates other relations that are cognitively-semantic based relations. Compounding is morphologically a complex word formation process. The accumulation of these relations along with the role of transparency helps to form both the inner and outer circles of our understanding of compounds. The inner circles are found within one level of classification such as the syntactic or semantic classifications. To form the outer circles, a combination of these levels is needed. These outer circles are manifested by creating multilevel of analysis per compound. The primarily aim of the analysis of compounds in Romeo and Juliet is to develop a multiple- level of analysis to discover how these compounds are connected syntactically and cognitively .The second aim is to examine how these levels interact with each other. The results reflect that syntactic classification sheds light on the nature of the connected word, but the cognitive classifications add a new perspective to our understanding of the outer levels of compounds. The last level that adds to the degree of complexity that a compound may possess is the transparency. The more transparent the compounds are, the less semantically complex and vice versa.
Conflict Dynamics and Roles of Traditional Leaders: A Case Study of Herdsmen-Farmers’ Conflict in Kogi State, Nigeria
Dimelu M. U., E.D Salifu and J. M. Chah
The study examined conflict dynamics and management by traditional leaders in Kogi State. Data were collected from 242 randomly selected respondents through the use of structured interview and focus group discussion and analysed using descriptive statistics. Crop farmers and herdsmen enjoyed cordial relationship up to 1970, but started experiencing conflict in early 80’s. Conflicts between the groups had lasted from 20 years to date (90.4%). Conflict behaviour of the disputants were commercialization of crop residues, (97.0%) blocking of water point (83.1%), pilfering of farm produce (99.3%) and refusal to pay compensation for damages (93.3%). Traditional leaders mediated conflict cases by setting up conflict management committee (85.0%), educating and advocating for cooperation among the parties (67.0%) and other punitive measures. The study concludes that traditional rulers have great potentials for effective and sustainable management of resource use conflict. However, in the face of changing dynamics and complexity of conflict cases, there is need for institutional, economic and political supports anchored on sustainable collaboration/alliance of all stakeholders for greater success in the arbitration of disputes between farmers and herdsmen.
Keywords: Traditional Leader, Conflict, Herdsmen, Farmer, Management.
Effects of Deregulation of Collective Bargaining on Industrial Harmony in the Nigerian Public Service
Edeh, Joseph Nwokpoku, Nwakamma, Michael C. and Ajakemo, Bennet C.
Industrial harmony is sine qua non to the realization of organizational goals and objectives. Unfortunately, this appears to elude the Nigerian Public Service. This study titled “effects of deregulation of Collective Bargaining on industrial harmony in the Nigerian Public Service was carried out to determine the problems associated with deregulation of Collective Bargaining which has distorted industrial harmony in Nigerian Public Service with a view to recommending possible measures to salvage the situation. Exploratory research design was adopted and content analytical technique was used for the study. The researcher combined the industrial Systems Theory propounded by Dunlop (1958) and Adams (1964) equity theory to explicate the perceived effects of wage differentials occasioned by deregulated collective bargaining. Findings revealed among other things that deregulation of Collective Bargaining have resulted to wage differentials in the Nigerian Public Service. This has a negative effect on motivation of staff and productivity level of public servants who see wage differentials as inequity. The researcher therefore recommended among other things that the major stake holders in the Nigerian industrial relations system, Labour management and government should learn to be more proactive rather than reactive in any industrial dispute that may follow any labour related policy like deregulation of collective bargaining, excessive politicization of labour unions and anti-labour activities by some of their leaders should be discouraged.
Keywords: Deregulation, Collective Bargaining, Public Service, Industrial Harmony, and Wage Differentials