European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 50 No 1
November, 2015
The Validity of Government Action in the Procurement of Goods/Services
TEvery government action (bestuurshandelingen) must be measurable and testable, and therefore legal issues that may be raised is whether the parameters of the government's actions in establishing the validity of the winning bidder and whether the validity of the contract parameters procurement of goods and services? Rests on a foundation of theoretical and juridical basis for the legitimacy of the government's actions in determining the winner of the tender should be based on three parameters: authority, procedure and substance, the implications of non-fulfillment of this requirement is flawed resulting in juridical void. While the validity of the contract procurement should be based on two terms of agreement/contract, the terms of the subjective and expertise covering the agreement of the parties, non-fulfillment of this requirement can result in canceled the agreement; and the objective requirements which include the existence of a particular matter and the existence of a cause is allowed, this requirement is not met resulting void.
Keyword: validity, government actions, procurement
Scale and Proportion in Complicity and Resistance Postcolonial Feminist Analyses
Khadijah Bawazeer
This paper argues that the analyses of complicity and resistance in postcolonial feminism in Britain risks being biased and segmental unless it takes into consideration the scale and proportion of women’s complicity with the colonial powers or resistance to them. I contend that the degree of acceptance or rejection of the Empire’s mainstream discourses is not uniform among all women. However, powerful dominant discourses limited women’s scope of resistance. Some women voluntarily identified with the Empire abroad and adopted a male persona or an a-gendered stand. Some were coerced into needing affiliation with it; such women typically used proximity with a native topos or people to get employment by the Imperial apparatus. Other women unwittingly affiliated with the empire either directly or indirectly. This resulted in discrepancies in many women’s narratives that look resistant on the surface but are complicit at a deeper level of the text. Hence, in order to conduct analyses that are not biased, layered comparative enquiries, of as many variables as possible, are imperative. Such analyses call for theories that do not focus on objectionable issues like truth-value but rather on enabling interpretation such as the model of compound structures.
Keyword: Scale, proportion, postcolonial feminism, resistance, representation, travel writing
The Review of the Evidences to Deny the Arbah-e Makaseb Khums
Hosein Shokrian Amiri, Mohammad Mehdi Zareyi and Mohammad Mohseni Dehkalani
Since the victory of the Muslims in the battle of Badr, so far, has been awarded the fifth discusses the conflict between Sunni and Shia clerics who belong to one fifth of the cases, and it belongs to Arbah Mkasb more attention than it has attracted scholars Fryqyn is. Shiite scholars, according to the literal sense appears verse one fifth of the booty which implies the absolute benefit and infallible prophet (pbuh), fifth on Arbah Mkasb (interest income), the fifth of the fifth Mnkryn know, but the Sunnis are, argued with the revelation of the verse, only one recognized that the choice among Brocade Shiite religious than the latter, but more on this topic has been reviewed in relation to other legal issues still have comparability. In this study, in addition to a fair statement of reasons Fryqyn coherent words Shiite scholars, it would be fair to conclude.

Keywords: Evidence Khums, Arbah Mkasb, Shiite, Sunni
Secularism, Religious, and the Struggle For Power: What Can Hamas And Fatah Do?
Shadi A. Alshdaifat
The rivalry between Palestinian groups grows with mutual recriminations, perhaps fanned by recent poll showing huge popularity boost for Hamas. I endeavor to provide an examination of the Palestinian governing system under the Palestine Authority (PA), operated by Fatah in the West Bank and Hamas, its main opposition in the Gaza Strip. Underlying the conflict between the two major political parties, Fatah and Hamas, is the tension between Islam and its role in governance versus a purely secularist approach. An analysis of the situation is presented along with a discussion of governance in any future Palestinian state and its outlook.
Keywords: Governance, Sustainable Quality Improvement, Database, Private College Organization
Measurement Model Invariant Assessment of the Malaysian Undergraduates’ Innovation Orientation Instrument Scale across Genders
Norfarah Nordin, Mohd Ali Samsudin and Ahmad Nurulazam Md. Zain
The purpose of this study was to investigate the measurement model invariance across genders for the Malaysian Undergraduates’ Innovation Orientation (MUIO) instrument scale. A sample of 2,507 participants (Male=985, Female=1,522) in Malaysian public universities gave their responses to a 24-item self-reported, 4-point scale designed to measure five variables: innovation orientation, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, creativity, innovation motivation and entrepreneurial orientation. The measurement model invariant and model variant were compared based on the models’ parsimony and model fit. Results of this study shows that the measurement model invariant fits the data (RMSEA=0.041, TLI=0.937, CFI=0.945, NFI=0.933, X2/df=5.144) and is more parsimonious than the variant model (AIC Invariant model=1,736 < AIC Variant model=1,738). The finding suggests that the MUIO measurement model scales’ are equivalent across gender groups.
Keywords: Higher education, multivariate, multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, measurement invariant
El conjunto Exótico y Maravilloso en Don Quijote y Alutachael
Sanaa Shalan
Este estudio parte de la hipótesis de que hay una clara influencia de Don Quijote, del creador Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, en la novela “Los Hechos Extraños de la Desaparición de Saíd Abi Annahs Almutachael” (2) del prestigioso novelista palestina Emile Habibi (1). Una influencia que se puede detectar fácilmente a través del componente exótico y maravilloso en las dos novelas, en el tejido narrativo que emana principalmente de los personajes, y forma las características del lugar dando sus cualidades a los eventos que empujan la rueda de la narración en las dos novelas dentro de un marco intelectual, estético y visionario particular que conduce a una similitud inconfundible en la construcción narrativa de las dos novelas.
Palabras clave: la novela de Don Quijote, la novela de Los Hechos Extraños de la Desaparición de Saíd Abi Annahs Almutachael, una novela internacional, una novela árabe, el conjunto exótico y maravilloso.
Geographical Distribution of Public Secondary Schools and Factors Affecting Success Rates in Rammallah and Al-Bireh Governorate using GIS
Rami Nabil Musa, Ahmad Abu-Hammad, Hamzah Khawaldah and Nidal Alzboun
This study explores the geographic distribution of the secondary schools and the factors that affect the students’ success rates in Ramallah and Al-Bireh Governorate, Palestine. Three main sets of factors assumed to affect students’ success rates were considered and grouped in terms of: student-related factors, teacher-related factors, and school services and its environment related factors. The required data were collected from the Palestinian Ministry of Education, focusing on the students’ success rates for the academic years of 2009-2013. In addition, a two closed ended questionnaires were distributed to an effective sample of 726 students and all of their teachers in a sample of 22 of the 97 schools available in the study area. A statistical analysis and the GIS-based spatial analysis methods were used to examine the effect of spatial distribution of schools, and the effects of the above three sets of factors on students’ success rates. The study concluded that student motivation to study, and low number of students per teacher and per classroom have the great influence on students’ success rates. It also concluded that females’ success rates were higher than those of boys, and that female teachers had a higher positive impact on their students’ success rates.
Keyword: Geographical Distribution, Public Schools, Success Rate, GIS, Rammallah and Al-Bireh Governorate.
Explaining the Variation Amongst Countries in Sustainability Reporting: An institutional Analysis
Margaret Antonicelli, Donato Calace, Domenico Morrone, Angeloantonio Russo and Vincenzo Vastola
Sustainability reports are emerging as key documents to 1) signal commitment towards sustainability; 2) manage the dialogue with stakeholders; 3) disclose relevant non-financial information. Although voluntary, sustainability reporting (SR) is spreading rapidly and widely among companies all over the world, as more than two thirds of the S&P; 500 publish a non-financial report. Nevertheless, companies face different institutional systems of norms, industry standards and cultural beliefs where they operate, while SR guidelines are defined by international organizations that seek homogeneity and standardization. The friction between the universality of SR guidelines and the difference in national institutional contexts is evidently a major dynamic influencing whether and how companies engage in SR. This research studies the influence of cultural and institutional variables on the publication SR compliant to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) G3 and G3.1 Guidelines, with an A+ Application Level. The cross-country sample includes companies publishing their sustainability reports in the “GRI Sustainability Disclosure Database” from 2005 to 2012. The analysis entails two stages: in the first stage, we observed the Gini index concentration of the reporting activity, in order to give representation of its geographical spreading, then, in the second stage, we performed a multivariate correlation and regression as to indicate the main factors influencing the disclosure of corporate sustainability practices. Our results indicate that institutional, i.e. regulatory initiatives and national culture, are significant in explaining the number of GRI A+ reports published in each country.
Keyword: GRI Reports, index of concentration, multivariated analysis, cultural and institutional influences
The Proliferation of Hijacked Journals: Sensitizing Scholars in Nigerian Higher Education System
Dare Ojo Omonijo, Onyekwere Oliver Chizaram Uche, Bernard Chukwukelue Chine, Michael Chibuzor Anyaegbunam, Tayo O. George and Claudius Ojo Awosope
This article was conceived to crave the indulgence of scholars and academics in Nigerian higher education system to the menace of cyber hijack journals, pretending to be outlets indexed in Thomson Reuters and Impact Factor Ranked Journals by SCImago. As a descriptive article, secondary data were used to identify the current list of these dubious journals and several ways of identifying them in order to avoid them. The study also presented challenges of engaging in such outlets for scholarly works. Lastly, the study concluded on the best way of discouraging scholars from patronizing hijack journals.
Keyword: Proliferation, hijacked journals, sensitizing, Nigerian scholars
Impacts of Ecotourism in Jordan: Wadi Rum
Ismaiel Abuamoud, Ramzi M. Alrousan and Malek Aziz Bader
Ecotourism is a growing industry all over the world and is renowned largely for its sustainable approach to the interactions between tourists and the local destination. Jordan is one of the few countries in the Middle Eastern region with sustainable tourism options. In fact, Jordan has one of the most widely recognized tourism options. One of the most successful example of eco-lodges in the world is located in Dana Biosphere Reserve in the Southern part of the country. Jordan is a destination for both outdoor enthusiasts and culturists interested in the Middle East. Thus, ecotourism has the potential to be the main economic driving point, especially among the Bedouin community because of their close interaction with the natural environment of Jordan. Since Jordan is a sustainable tourism industry, it can exemplify Jordan’s rich heritage to curious travelers. This study aims to understand whether the tourism activity in Wadi Rum has negative impacts on the preservation of the Bedouin culture. Examining the economic and environmental impacts alongside the cultural and social elements, the effects are evident. Is it possible that because of rising interaction between Bedouin population and foreigners, the Bedouins have become more accustomed to the Western world? Are the Bedouins straying away from their traditional roots due to foreign contact? (Haddad, 2013).
Keywords: Ecotourism, Jordan, Wadi Rum, Sustainable approach, Economic and environmental impacts

Evaluation of the Comparative Sociological of Functionalism of Concepts in Lyrics of Saib Tabrizi
(With emphasis on the views of Durkheim)
Dr. Reza Esmaeili, Mostafa Domehri, Eisa Charati and Mohammad Reza Nezaratizadeh
The objective of this paper is to explore, identification and extraction the basic concepts of functionalism school, as one of the most important schools of sociology (with emphasis on the views of Durkheim) in the poetry of one of the greatest poets Iran Saib Tabrizi. Accordingly, four the concept of normative and moral values, unity and social order, Impact on society and the environment on human and the suppression of individualistic and selfish desires selected and content analysis was performed on 200 Lyric form first volume of the collection Alfiat of Saib. In the end through the analysis of the content network, Data were extracted which reflects the strong presence of functionalism concepts (with emphasis on the views of Durkheim) in the poetry of Saib. The results showed that most frequent is content of the normative and moral values with 57 verses.
Keywords: functionalism, Saib Tabrizi, Durkheim, content analysis