European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 49 No 4
October, 2015
Entrpreneurial Analysis of Ornamental Fish Production in Lagos State, Nigeria
Jaji M.F.O and M. O. Odesola
The study focused on examination of the entrepreneurial analysis of Ornamental fish production in Lagos State, Nigeria. The target population for this study was practicing ornamental fish farmers, who are members of Association of Ornamental Fish Farmers and Exporters of Nigeria (AOFFEN). A total of thirty two farmers were randomly selected as respondents for this study. Structured questionnaires comprising of close and open ended questionnaires were administered on the selected ornamental fish farmers. Cost and return analysis on ornamental fish farming in Lagos revealed that ornamental fish was profitable in Lagos State. Total investment costs for ornamental fish farming in Lagos State was N2,36,446.77, of which the proportion for land acquisition was 65.3 percent. Total fixed costs were N1,444,619.37, of which depreciation was 85.9 percent. Total variable cost was N854,071.80, of which seed costs accounted for 46.6 percent. In ornamental fish farming, water was replaced every other day, which resulted in high electricity costs with 2.5 percent of total variable costs. Total costs were N4,335,137.94. Costs and returns analysis indicated that ornamental fish production generated positive returns in Lagos State. The variable costs were low. Positive returns were mainly due to the presence of opportunity costs in the form of family labour costs. Hence the study indicated a bright economic future for strengthening domestic ornamental fish production along commercial lines in Lagos State. It was recommended that unemployed youths be trained in ornamental fish production methods and supported with soft loans to engage in ornamental fish production.
Keyword: Entrepreneurial, ornamental, fish farming, Nigeria
Analysis of Gender Contributions in Sweet Potato Production in Enugu State, Nigeria
Ezeibe, A. B. C., Onyechi, K. C. N and Okide, C. C.
The study was conducted to analyse the relative contributions of both genders in sweet potato production in Enugu State Nigeria in 2013. Specifically, the study examined the activities carried out by both genders, ways sweet potato farming contributed to the farmers’ socio-economic status, the efficiency estimates of the farmers. The sweet potato farmers in Enugu State Nigeria made up the sample frame but one hundred and twenty sweet potato farmers were randomly selected from 12 villages in Nsukka Agricultural Zone. A well structured questionnaire was used as an instrumental guide to interview the farmers. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and t-test. The result revealed that women performed more of the activities like planting, weeding and harvesting while their male counterpart were majorly involved in land preparation and ridging. The efficiency distribution showed that females operated at a higher efficiency range than the males. It is therefore penitent that government should encourage women sweet potato farmers as they were found to be more productive. It was recommended that farmers should form cooperative societies to help them access credit and loan for expansion and production. This will enhance production, profitability and food security in Nigeria.
Keyword: Gender contributions, sweet potato farming, production activities, constraints, and food security JEL Classification code: Q1
Tourist Development in Petra Province: Wadi Musa as a Case Study
Kefah Fare Alnahar Alshawagfih, Dahab Damen Albrari and Omar Abedlla Alananzeh
This study aims at highlighting the reality of tourist development in Petra, the role of local communities to develop and sustain tourism and the manner of activating that role to augment ate their region in order to promote tourism industry in Jordan. To realize these objectives, (376) questionnaires were distributed among the members of the members of the local community in Wadi Musa where after (322) questionnaires were retrieved. The results showed statistically significant differences in the roles of the local community members in the development of tourism in Petra due to the nature of job and level of income.

Keywords: local communities, tourist development, tourist streams, tourist attraction, tourist education.
A Model of the Governance of Sustainable Improvement of Private Higher Education Institutions in West Java, Indonesia
Nur Aedi
Higher education governance is a systematic activity in planning, structuring, improving, and developing higher education in order to achieve the self-reliance decision-making. All this time, decision-makingfaces a very serious obstacles and it is perceived by managers of higher education, as the direct policy-makers, and by the private higher education institutions coordinators, as the executor of coordination in the development of higher education. Problems that arise are (1) the lack of data information systems of college; (2) the lack of systemic institutional coordination; and (3) the lack of encouragement in making significant changes to higher education institutions and the coordinator of private colleges (Kopertis –Kordinator Perguruan Tinggi Swasta). These problems lead to communication errors that are related to the improvement of higher education quality management. This study aims to reveal a model of the governance of improved-sustainablehigher-education quality through the college database as a source of information and data management system. This study used a qualitative method with a descriptive approach. Research and development are used as approaches and strengthening of the cases studied. The data source of this research is private colleges under the auspices of the KopertisRegion IV. This is done with consideration of the working area, experience, and understanding of science. This study presents a research model that incorporates a database software system of the web-based individual organization of private colleges that is integrated with the individual web of private colleges. This research is a something new with the discovery of some thoughts as products of research.They include (a) the model of governance of system-policy quality improvement of private higher education organization that are sustainable with the database-based; (b) the model of policy for sustainable quality improvement of the implementation at the organizational level of private higher education institutionsas a subsystem of continuous quality improvement of governance at the Kopertis level; (c) the model of design of continuous quality improvement database software that is integrated with the web of private higher education institutionsas a supporting system (G-CQISO Software); (d) the implementation of the continuous governance quality improvement system at the organization of private higher education at the Kopertislevel.
Keywords: Governance, Sustainable Quality Improvement, Database, Private College Organization
Monetary Policy and Private Sector Investment in Nigeria
Jonathan Emenike Ogbuabor, Gladys Chiekwe Aneke and Ifeoma Christy
As a means of providing evidence based policy recommendations that will enhance the growth and development of the Nigerian economy, this study examined the impact of monetary policy on private sector investment in Nigeria over the period 1970 to 2012 using an ordinary least squares (OLS) methodology. The study examined the time series properties of the data using the Zivot-Andrews unit root test and the Johansen cointegration test. The study found a stable long run relationship between the series. In addition, the results of the long run model indicate that monetary policy impact on private sector investment through three main channels, namely: money supply, domestic savings and government domestic debt. The coefficients of these variables are statistically significant and positively related to private sector investment; while the exchange rate that is not statistically significant is negatively related to private investment in Nigeria. Contrary to expectations, inflation and real interest rate showed positive relationship with private sector investment in Nigeria.
Keywords: Monetary Policy; Private Sector Investment; OLS; Cointegration; CBN; Nigeria
Exchange Rate Movement in Nigeria: Does it follow a Markovian Process?
Ifeoma C, Emmanuel I, Jonathan E. Ogbuabor and Gladys C. Aneke
In this paper , we looked at the null hypothesis that exchange rate in Nigeria follows a markovian process versus the alternative hypothesis that it doesn’t follow a markovian process. It was discovered that the Nigerian exchange rate follows a markovian process. The transition probability matrices for the Nigerian Naira versus the US Dollar were also obtained considering only two states (appreciation and depreciation states) and the results from the pooled transition probabilities showed that 0.53 is the pooled probability transition value for appreciation to appreciation from the year 1999 to the year 2011, 0.47 for exchange rate appreciation state to exchange rate depreciation state, 0.37 for depreciation to appreciation and 0.63 for depreciation to depreciation states. It simply implies that it takes 53% for naira to move from an appreciation state to another state of appreciation and 63% for it to move from a depreciation state to a state of depreciation. 47% from an appreciation state to a depreciation state and 37% from depreciation state to an appreciation state. The markov parameters were also estimated and it can be seen from the results that there were differences in the second and first regimes in terms of its variances and means which implies that the exchange rate in the second regime converges more, that is, the variations are lower in the second regime with 199.383 than in the first regime with 388.505 showing that there is a more steady and stable economy unlike in the first regime with a high variation indicating that there isn’t a stable economic condition in the first regime. This was achieved before testing if the Nigerian exchange rate follows a markovian process or not. It is important that before one uses the markov methodology for exchange rate prediction that the property of memoryless should be tested which is what this paper achieved.
Keyword: Exchange Rate, Markovian Process, Null Hypothesis, States, Transition Probability Matrices
Determinants of Online Shopping Adoption: Meta Analysis and Review
K.A. Asraar Ahmed and A.S. Sathish
The growth of electronic commerce worldwide has surpassed 1.5 trillion dollars and the reason behind this tremendous growth is due to change in shopping style of consumers across the globe. In developing country like India electronic commerce is elevating at a lightning speed and also there is an increase in internet subscription in India. It is necessary for electronic retailers to know what drives these consumers to shop online. The basic objective of this paper is to review the literature on drivers of online shopping adoption and to draw major constructs and theories used by researchers worldwide to predict consumer online shopping intentions. We reviewed 72 articles from time period of 2001- 2014 and we used R software for analysing keywords from literature review. Meta-Analysis was conducted to study relationship between attitude and intention to adopt online shopping. Finally recommendations for online retailers were discussed.
Keyword: Online Shopping, Consumers, Attitude, Meta-Analysis, Adoption, Motivation, Purchase Intention.
Planning and Writing a Stylistic Essay: Pedagogical Perspectives on Social Aspects of Language use and the Ground Rules of How we Process Language in Interpersonal Communication
Vijay Singh Thakur
In the backdrop of Simpson’s (2001) argument that fictional dialogues provide excellent source material for explaining the basic patterns of everyday conversation (p. 130) and taking direction from a basic premise that systematic approach to textual analysis yields better analytical results, this paper investigates the structure of verbal interaction and assesses some of the pragmatic strategies that speakers and hearers use in conversation. The analysis of a sample dialogic excerpt from Vikram Seth’s magnum Opus A Suitable Boy will attempt to demonstrate how this sort of fictional dialogue and its pragmatic stylistic analysis can offer fruitful pedagogic insights into aspects of naturally occurring conversation.
The paper proposes a hybrid analytic framework of pragmatically oriented study of the language, and introduces a range of pragmatic theories and offers certain approaches that can be applied to texts. The paper attempts to show how pragmatic interpretative strategies can make an added contribution to the study of literature as well as to the development of pragmatic competence, critical thinking, and better understanding of the use of naturally occurring language both in literature as well as language classrooms. Incidentally, the assumption behind proposing a hybrid approach to a literary text as a source activity for language and literature teaching is that better understanding and insights of conversational considerations in inter-personal communications can be reached only if it is viewed in multiple discoursal perspectives.
Keyword: social aspects of language, textual analysis, pragmatic approaches, turn management, speech act analysis, implicature, positive face, negative face, politeness moves
Strengthening Organisational Commitment among Long-Term Care Staff: Does Virtuous Organisational Practice Enables Virtuous Outcome
Gauri S. Rai
The objective of this study is to examine the influence of job and career satisfaction, working conditions, open and accurate communication and social support on organisational commitment among long-term care staff. A total of 1732 staff members from a set of 10 health and rehabilitation centers were surveyed and 511 usable questionnaires were received. Correlation and regression analysis techniques were used in the data analysis. The virtuous organisational perspective was used to formulate hypotheses and explain the findings. The findings revealed that job satisfaction and working conditions as instrumental enablers, and open and accurate communication and social support as expressive enablers promote reciprocity between the staff and the organisation to strengthen organisational commitment. The theoretical and practical implications and direction for future research and limitations of the study were also discussed.
Keyword: Job and Career satisfaction, working conditions, open and accurate communication, social support and organisational commitment
The Effect of Social Conflict on the Environmental Security Disruption of Coastal Communities in the Bitung City, Indonesia
Alfien Pandaleke
The research objective is to determine if the low education, egoist attitudes and wrong perception affect the environmental security disruption of coastal communities in Bitung.
Based on the research results by using product moment analysis Karl Pearson, the r is 0.770 which means that the hypothesis H1 is accepted that there is an effect of social conflict by low education, egoist attitude and wrong perception on the environmental security disruption of coastal communities in the Bitung city and the results are relatively strong.
To test the relationship significance of social conflict disruption and the environmental safety of coastal communities in Bitung city with the t count formula, the result is 18.99494174. Thus it is obtained t count = 18.995 > t table = 1.960. It means the relationships between social conflict by low education, egoism and wrong perceptions and the environment security disruption of coastal communities in Bitung is significant.
Keywords: Environment security, social conflict, education, attitude and perception.