European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 49 No 3
October, 2015
Determinant of Intention to use the Internet Technology of Lecturers
Erry Rimawan, Endang Siti Astuti, Kertahadi, Al Musadieq and Angga Dwi Mulyanto
The internet is important these days. It assists onesto do their work. For a teacher, the internet helps them to find teaching materials. For students, it is one of the learning media, in which they can study through e-learning facilities. Current research publications for faculty members are facilitated by the e-journalsfor lecturers to conduct mutual sharing of research results. Currently, many lecturers are not familiar with the use of the internet as to make it beneficial for them. This study aims to examine the factors that influence the intention and use of the internet technology for lecturers. Results from this study indicate that the important factors to increase the use of the internet technology bylecturers are trust and intention. As for improving the intention, performance expectations, business expectations, social influence, hedonic motivation, habits, and facilities. Of these six factors, social influences become the factor with the highest effect on the intention to use the internet by lecturers.
Keywords: Internet, Lecturer
The Impact of Saudi Local Culture on CRM Implementation by Telecommunication Companies State-of-art Study
Sara Al-Rashed
Generally, organizations seek for new and enhanced opportunities to market and spread their services and products. Relationships with customers play a major role in this issue, so the concept of Customer Relationship Management (CRM)is beingwidely deployedin the recent years. The CRM implementation has essential impacts on organization success, growth, and competition, hence CRM basically is utilized to enable organizations to recognize their customer needs and to state effective relationships with their customers; this in turn opens more opportunities for companies and organizations to enhance their performance and revenue. However, the concept of CRM is not a totally recognized concept, because it still growing a day by day due to its wide implementation in several fields. Generally, companies that are specialized in telecommunication have more direct relationships with their customers than other kinds of companies, and have a huge amount of data related to their customers. Thus, CRM strategies have specialized influences on telecommunications companies. In fact, Saudi Arabia is the largest area in the Arabs land. It locates on a 75% of the Arabian Peninsula in South West Asia. It hasan Islamic culture; people in Saudi Arabia are extrovert, emotive with each other, where the relations between them, especially between relatives, is so important, where those aspects should be taken into consideration by communication companies due to the deep interactions between communication companies and local people.This paper is conducted to study the effects of CRM on telecommunication companies in Saudi Arabia, and to study the local culture reflections on CRM implementation. Tweets of several customers were detected and engaged in the evaluation of the performance.
Keywords: customer relationship management, electronic CRM, culture
A Comparative Assessment of Perceived Family Functioning among Individuals with and without Conversion Disorder in District Gujrat, Pakistan
Sameera Shafiq and Mabruka Zia
The aim of the present cross-sectional comparative research is to investigate the differences in the perceptions of the family functioning among patients diagnosed with conversion disorder and the healthy individuals who are not having any kind of mental and physical disorder. Moreover, the effects of some of the socio-demographic variables (gender, marital status, family system, and residential area) was also seen for their significance of impact in the level of perceived family processes across seven dimensions of family among conversion patients and healthy counterparts. In pilot study, Family Assessment Device (FAD, Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) was translated in Urdu by forward-backward translation method, with the permission of the authors. The Urdu translated version was tested on the sample of 30 participants (15 conversion patients and 15 healthy counterparts) and it was found reliable for the use with Pakistani population, having alpha cronbach value 0.75. The main study comprised of 60 participants (30 conversion patients and 30 healthy individuals; age range 20 to 50 years), purposively selected from different hospital settings of Gujrat and Kharian. The resulted indicated that there were no significant difference on the dimensions of the family function in the two groups of the sample except for the subscale of roles and affective involvement. Moreover, the socio-demographic variables when assessed showed insignificant impact on the level of family function. Implications along with the limitations of the study are discussed.

Keywords: Conversion Disorder, Psychological Assessment, Family Functioning, Mental Health.
Perceptions and use of Question Types by TEFL Teachers in Oman: A Pedagogical Study
Moosa Ahmed, Suyansah Swanto and Wardatul Akmam Din
With this premise as a backdrop that effective use of questions in instructional practices is of vital importance in EFL classrooms, this study was undertaken to investigate teachers’ perceived knowledge and their actual use of question types in grades 5-12 in Omani schools with reference to cognitive questions, affective questions, display questions, referential questions, and interactional modifications. The present study made an attempt to look for differences among teachers in using questions based on their gender, nationality, and grade level. A total of 120 EFL teachers representing a percentage of 40% of the total population of all EFL male and female teachers in Dhofar region of Oman participated in this study. Data analysis showed that EFL teachers in Oman claim that they are highly knowledgeable about the use of different question types. However, the correlation between teachers’ perceived knowledge with their actual use of question types varied according to the question type. Results also indicate that there are no significant differences regarding gender, nationality, and grade level in the use of question types. In view of the discussion of findings pedagogical implications are explored and recommendations made.
Keywords: EFL teachers’ perceptions, types of questions, teachers’ knowledge, Oman
The Evolution of Working Women in Jordanian Universities between (2000 - 2009)
Amal El Kharouf and Hala Khyami Horani
The purposes of this study was to identify the evolution of working women in the Jordanian Universities (Public and Private) during the period 2000 to 2009, by identifying the following: Female to male ratio of workers, female to male ratio of academics, distribution by leadership positions at the different university levels and disciplines; chances of equal training, opportunities to participate in conferences and workshops; scientific publications and excellence awards; in addition to identification of the factors that influence their status and defining the barriers hindering their advancement in their universities.
Qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. A questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of employees and academics in leading positions in all public and private universities in Jordan.
This study showed that female to male ratio of workers and academics in universities increased in all disciplines. Women’s access to leadership positions required certain scientific and personal qualifications in addition to experience; however several barriers hindering women’s access to leadership positions were identified and included work pressure, long working hours, lack of professional training, distance between the workplace and home, and the prevailing culture dominated by a patriarchal society.
Recommendations of this study included: Women should improve their education, enhance self - confidence, strengthen their leadership capabilities and define their goals, in addition to raising awareness of the importance of women’s role in the society’s development and reform.
Keywords: Working women, Jordanian women, Jordanian Universities, Barriers to women’s advancement.
Comparing Social Development Indexes in Iran's Five Years Development Programs
Mehdi Rasoulzadeh, Amirmasoud Shahramnia and Hosein Masoudnia
After the failure of classical theoriesof development in the so called” third world” countries, tendency towards non-economic aspects has increased and specially social development has found a central role.The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of social development indexes in the five years development plans(FYDP) of Islamic republic of Iran.The social indexes are categorized in four general groups of social justice, social integrity, quality of life, quality of human resources.Content analysis is the methodology of the present research. The results show that different consideration is paid to these four categories in different programs.
Keywords: social development, development program, content analysis, Iran
Attitudes of Hong Kong Consumers toward Mobile Banking
Chi-hong Leung
The aim of this paper is to study how consumers’ mobile usage can affect their perception of easiness, safety, superior information, and innovation, and how these perceived attitudes affect mobile banking adoption in Hong Kong. A questionnaire survey was performed and it collected data from 139 respondents who were randomly selected from Hong Kong White Pages. It is found that mobile phone usage in terms of mobile services, mobile devices and preference to mobile banking can promote positive attitudes to perceived easiness, safety and innovation. In addition, perceived easiness and innovation can encourage the adoption of mobile banking. However, results show that perception of superior information cannot be affected by usage of mobile devices, and both the users and non-users of mobile banking are concerned about the security problem in the online environment. Thus, perceived easiness and innovation are two major factors that should be considered in the marketing strategy of mobile banking. Banks should not ignore this new development opportunity because mobile banking does not only enhance the efficiency of banking services, but also improves relations with customers in the long term.
Keywords: Mobile Banking, Consumer Attitudes, Easiness, Safety, Superior Information, Innovation
Assessing the Supply Chain Management Practice among the Small and Medium – Scale Enterprise (SMEs) in Kumasi Metropolis
Ernest Agyei Kwaku, Eric Berko-Aidoo Lecturer and Aponsah Livingstone
In supply chain there is combination of companies that perform different functions. There are companies that are producers, distributors or wholesalers, retailers, and companies or individuals who are the customers, the final consumers of a product. Supporting the SMEs there will be other companies that are service providers that provide a range of needed services. SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) are very important to the growth of any nation. It is no surprise that developed countries enjoying a growing and booming economy attribute most of their achievements to a flourishing SMEs sector. Empirical studies have shown that SMEs contribute over 55 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) and over 65 percent of total employment in high-income countries. In the developed economies, small businesses are recognized as the main engines for growth and development because of their significant contributions to economic growth and prosperity. The potential of SMEs to promote domestic-led growth in new and existing industries and to strengthen the resilience of the economy in a competitive and challenging environment is inarguable. This shows that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have been the backbone of economic growth and driving industrial development. Due to their sheer numbers, size and nature of operations, the role of SMEs in promoting endogenous sources of growth and strengthening the infrastructure for accelerated economic expansion and development has been recognized For example, it is estimated that SMEs account for 70 percent of Ghana's gross domestic product (GDP) and 92 percent of its businesses. Irrespective of the awareness of the remarkable contribution of SMEs to the development of Ghana economy, it has to be admitted that the growth of SMEs in Ghana faces a number of generic challenges. The first and common challenge is the lack of access to appropriate capital from both the banking sector and the capital markets. There is a general perception in the financial sector that lending or provision of capital to SMEs is risky business due to a number of reasons. The main objective of the study is to assess the supply chain management practices among small and medium scale enterprises (SMES) in the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods with case study strategy was used in the study. Primary data was collected from field survey through questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and observation. The data was analysed using quantitative and qualitative approaches.
Thus, it was seen that the SMEs in Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly face some challenges with their suppliers. The findings reveals that there were some information related issues and challenges on supply chain management practices in SMEs which were not measured due to lack of information system and record keeping. There were customer related challenges. Some of the issues had to do with frequent price increment, packages among others. It was recommended that SMEs should engage in employment of suitable professionals with the expertise, requisite skills to manage the chain at every stage of the process. Improvement in social infrastructure to facilitate communication with supply chain partners by governments and policy makers and finally increase education and public awareness of the need to adopt supply chain principles to SME business operations.
Keywords: Supply chain management practise, small and medium size Enterprise, Kumasi metropolitan assembly, Ghana
Development of Perceived Halo Effect Scale in the Evaluation of the Success
Betul Karakoc Alatli and Omay Cokluk
What is aimed in this study is to develop a valid and reliable scaling instrument related to determining the halo effect perceived by 6th, 7th and 8th grade students in their evaluation of the success and to analyze the scores acquired from this scale. Sixth, 7th and 8th grade students having education in central elementary schools of Tokat form the target population of the study. Scale’s tentative form that includes 38 items was conducted with on 767 students chosen randomly and a final form with 32 items was created as a result of exploratory factor analysis carried out to define the structure validity. Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient of internal consistency was 0.94, test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.83. As a result of the analysis, a proven valid and reliable scale that consists of 5 sub-dimensions and 32 items and that can quantify the halo effect perceived by 6th, 7th and 8th grade students was acquired.
Keywords: Halo Effect, Evaluation of the Success, Development of Scale
Effet de L’explication Naïve des Causes du Paludisme et du Niveau D’instruction sur L’attitude de la Femme Enceinte Face à la Moustiquaire
Otémé Apolos Christophe
La présente étude qui s’inscrit dans le cadre général de la santé de la reproduction vise précisément à mettre en relief le rôle des attributions causales et du niveau d’instruction dans l’occurrence des comportements à risque palustre chez la femme enceinte.
L’étude a porté sur 90 Femmes enceintes, dont l’âge varie entre 18 et 35 ans, dépistées paludéennes et possédant au moins une moustiquaire. Les données recueillies au moyen d’un questionnaire, ont été traitées à l’aide du test de « Khi deux » de Person. Les résultats obtenus montrent que l’explication causale externe du paludisme aussi bien que le niveau d’instruction relativement faible (Analphabète/Primaire) induit chez la femme enceinte un comportement à risque palustre. Ces résultats confirment que les aspects cognitifs et affectifs jouent un rôle fondamental dans l’occurrence des comportements à risque palustre source de l’inefficacité des outils de prévention du paludisme. De sorte que la connaissance et la prise en compte du jugement social et du niveau d’instruction des patients se révèlent comme une piste intéressante pour la conception des stratégies visant à intervenir dans le champ complexe des maladies dites tropicales.
Keywords: attribution causale, niveau d’instruction, moustiquaires imprégnées, comportements à risque palustre.

Monetary Policy and Liquidity of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria: A Panel Data Analysis
Jonathan Emenike Ogbuabor and Gladys Chiekwe Aneke
This study examined the impact of monetary policy on the liquidity of deposit money banks in Nigeria using panel data analysis. The results indicate that none of the monetary policy variables (including money supply, minimum rediscount rate, exchange rate of the naira, cash reserve ratio, credit to the private sector, and inflation rate) impacted significantly on the liquidity of deposit money banks in Nigeria even at 10% level of significance. These unexpected results, which are contrary to theoretical expectations, may be due to the huge distortions in the Nigerian economy, such as the existence of a huge informal sector that renders the CBN monetary policy ineffective. The study therefore recommends that the CBN should vigorously pursue its ongoing cashless policy in order to reduce the volume of cash circulating outside the formal sector and also to achieve greater financial inclusion. This will improve the effectiveness of the CBN’s monetary policy in Nigeria. In addition, since the minimum rediscount rate (MRR) and the exchange rate of naira (EXCH) impacted negatively on the liquidity of deposit money banks, the CBN should carefully implement its money stock management and exchange rate control strategies in order not to injure the liquidity of deposit money banks in Nigeria.
Keywords: Monetary Policy; Bank Liquidity; Panel Analysis; CBN; Nigeria