European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 46 No 4
February, 2015
Syndication and Firm Performance: Evidence from French VC-backed firms
Amina Hamdouni
In this study, we show the importance of the syndication as a specific mechanism of governance. Through this mechanism, Venture capital (VC) takes an active role in the development of the investee firm and has a disciplinary role. By syndication, venture capitalists have direct control. The sample covers the period 2000-2010 and consists of 106 French VC backed IPOs. We study the impact of VC backing on corporate governance and more precisely the impact of syndication on performance and stakeholders’ wealth. The empirical validation shows that syndication hasn’t an influence on performance and on VC’ wealth.
Keywords: Venture Capital, Corporate governance, Syndication, Performance, Stakeholders’ wealth.
The Impacts of Nigeria-China Trade Relations on Nigeria’s Unemployment Level
Damilola F. Arawomo and Augustine C. Osigwe
The Nigeria-China trade relations got a boost in the last decade to the extent that China displaced the traditional trade partners of Nigeria. Nigeria’s imports from China have increased by several folds between 2000 and 2012. Specifically, it rose from $29.3 million in 2000 to $9.29 billion in 2012. Conversely, Nigeria’s unemployment has been increasing over the past few years. It increased from 12.6% in 2000 to 23.9% in 2012. The contradictions in the trends of Nigeria’s import and unemployment rate motivated this study, which examined the impact Nigeria’s import from China on its unemployment rate. The Generalised Moment Method of analysis was employed to estimate the model. The results revealed that Nigeria’s import from China worsened its unemployment rate. This confirmed the prediction of the new trade theory. We therefore recommend that Nigeria should enhance its domestic production through improved infrastructural development and foreign direct investment.
Keywords: Trade Relations, Import and Unemployment JEL Classification:E24, F1, F5
Improvement of Employees' Evaluation in a Service Sector
Antoine Tannous and Anis Tannous
This paper attempts to test the performance appraisal system applied in Lebanese bank in Lebanon in order to reduce the gap between employees and the human resources department concerning the system applied.
The research was carried out using a survey strategy through which data were assembled by means of a questionnaire and interviews. The survey of this study will be conducted with employees in Lebanese bank to figure out what performance appraisal methods are used, and how could they be further improved. The population of interest for the study consists of employees in important bank in Lebanon in all its branches in departments. Since they were chosen randomly, the sampling method is simple random sampling method that consists of 316 employees.
The data collected from the survey was analyzed using the SPSS program and the results of the analysis showed that HR departments encourage performance appraisal in their banks and believe that it is essential for the continuity of their organization.
Keywords: Employee evaluation, Performance appraisal, Human resources, Banking, Service
The Impact of Tourism Education Problems on the Students’ Affective Commitment
Mehmet Oguzhan Ilban and Mehmet Kasli
This study aims to identify the problems that undergraduates encounter during their studies and the effects on students' level of affective commitment to school, and their intention to continue their studies. To this aim, a questionnaire was applied to a group of 384 undergraduates. The research findings showed that the tourism education problems can be defined as “the acquisition of the qualities required by tourism enterprises”, “collaboration with the businesses”, and “opportunities granted for students”. The relationships as the subject of the study were tested with structural equation modelling (SEM). Finally, tourism education problems influence the intention to continue studies through affective commitment. It was concluded from the findings that the level of affective commitment had a positive effect on the intention to continue studies.
Keywords: Tourism education problems, affective commitment, intention to continue study, tourism students.
Predicting EFL Learners' Grammar Performance Based on their Learning Styles
Masoud Zoghi and Valeh Valipour
The present study was an attempt to explore the relationships between EFL high school learners' grammar performance with their learning styles (undirected, reproduction, application directed, and meaning directed learning styles) among Persian high school students. To that end, the researchers selected 154 participants randomly from the high schools in Chaloos, Iran. Data collection was done through inventory learning styles (ILS) standard questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed through Multiple Regression. Overall, results showed that learners' grammar performance can be predicted by their learning styles among which undirected learning style is the best predictor. Implications of the study are further discussed.
Keywords: Undirected, Reproduction, Application directed, Meaning directed learning styles
Seeking Apps: Mobile Marketing and the Baby Boomer Generation
Tiffanie N. Turner
Despite the proliferation of mobile phone technological advances, advertising and millions of applications (“apps”), popular United States culture assumes that mobile phone apps and marketing attract a younger consumer profile. As a result mobile marketing campaigns and smartphone applications are skewed for the Generations X & Y consumer segment. The Baby Boomer generation, those born between 1946 and 1964, represents the largest and most wealthy generation in the US population, yet few mobile marketing campaigns are focused on this actively involved consumer base. This exploratory paper will apply the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) developed by Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) and J. Howard and J. Sheth’s (1969) model of buying behavior as the framework in concluding that the baby boomer generation requires additional educational marketing to induce a larger acceptance and use of mobile applications and mobile marketing. The work adds to the arena of marketing research in understanding the acceptance of mobile marketing acceptance and consumer behavior of this generation. It will also assist the telecommunication industry in adequately developing effective marketing strategies to capture the spending power of the Baby Boomer generation.
Keywords: mobile marketing, baby boomer, smartphone, mobile phone, cell phone
Criminal Law and Developments in Indonesia
M Natsir
Criminal law in Indonesia is now no longer relevant to the development of Indonesian society, so there should be reforms to suit the needs of the people of Indonesia, because the law is a whole life coercive regulation to protect the interests of people in society.
Preparation of a New Concept of the Criminal Code cannot be separated from the idea / development policy of the National Legal System based on Pancasila as Bohemian national values aspired. This means, the renewal of the National Criminal Law should be well motivated and sourced / oriented to the basic ideas of Pancasila which contains in it the balance of the value of: (a) religious moral (Deity), (b) humanity (humanistic), (c) nationality, (d) democracy, and (e) social justice.
The National Criminal Code systematic design concept consists of two (2) books that regulate the First Book General Provisions and Books Second set of Crime. The design concept prepared by the National Criminal Code is based on three (3) substance that is the central issue in the criminal law of material that is the problem of crime, criminal liability issues and problems criminal system.
The problems that need to be investigated the are: How Criminal Law Reform Efforts in Indonesia towards the Codification and Unification. This study aims: To know and analyze the development of criminal law in Indonesia. This type of research is normative philosophical approach used to assess the perspective of the philosophy of justice, statute approach used to assess the harmonization of the laws. Conceptual approach used to develop the conception of criminal system, theory, law and legal doctrine (doctrine) and the opinion of legal experts. Historical approach is used to examine the history of legislation in Indonesia.
Keywords: reform, legal, criminal codification, unification
Emotional Intelligence of Yoga and Non Yoga Practitioners: A Comparative Study
Nirmala Raghavan and Haider Yasmeen
Emotional intelligence is considered as a relevant construct in different domains of one’s life such as physical and mental health, academic, workplace performance and social functioning. The present study is an attempt to explore and compare the level of emotional intelligence between yoga practitioners and non-yoga practitioners. Emotional intelligence scale (EIS) 2009 was used to collect data from the respondents and is analyzed using independent t test. The data elicited from 63 yoga practitioners practicing simplified kundalini yoga and 52 non-yoga practitioners revealed that yoga practitioners’ level of emotional intelligence is higher than non-yoga practitioners. Gender difference in the level of emotional intelligence was found among yoga practitioners but no significant difference in the gender was observed among non-yoga practitioners. Further, the current study highlighted the significant difference between yoga and non-yoga practitioners in the age group of 21-35 and 36-50 years on the level of emotional intelligence but no significant difference in the age group between 51- 60 years was observed.
Keywords: Simplified kundalini Yoga, Emotional intelligence, Assistant Professors, Gender, Age.
Beneath Orient Eyes: Analysis of Women's Rights and Citizenship in Jordan
Rania F. Al-Rabadi
The question of where Jordan stands on women’s rights has made a great deal of attention over the past few years. Many of the issues that concern gender equality arise in the privet sphere. Therefore, we need to talk about the politics of family law since it is a continuous and current debate, it’s relevant to women rights. The Family law is the law related to matters such as, polygamy, divorce, inheritance, child custody, guardianship, obedience. It affects and taking part in Jordanian women exercising to their granted constitutional political rights. It is the law that run individual affairs within the privet sphere in a patriarchal society where it affects also on exercising other rights in the public sphere. It is still carry explicit discrimination against women and enshrined in the country’s national legislations. Women have to address the religious court where decisions are based on the judge's point view. This study is attempted to analyse the family law. Much of the available local literature is purely theoretical, and systematic empirical studies with a strong gender analysis are devastatingly absent. Therefore, semi structured interviews using purposive sampling that encompass a range of elite actors from provincials actors, academic, politicians, and civil society activists, who are involved in the topic were conducted. A reputation-based snowball sampling method, a technique for finding research subject by referral from one subject to the next was used. Elite interviews were applied to collect the qualitative primary data. While the secondary sources represents document analyses such as national and international documents like constitution, agreements, written resources , laws, regulations, articles, and books. The results indicate that, women exclusion from citizenship, and the stereotype that they belongs to the private sphere where it is related to the family domain, is influenced by the traditional interpretation of religious interpreters, and this is embedded in the Family law, the law that govern the individual personal life. In its turn, other laws and rights are affected, for example, obedience and freedom of movement where men have the authority over women. Also, a shy political friendly polices with regards to social rights (family law) reforms have been done. These policies did not remove the discrimination against women, and only when this code is reformed that discrimination against women can be successfully eradicated. Moreover, in decision making positions and particularly in the parliament, the absence of authorized women who really motivated, believes in women equality, and working to support their legal status has an influence on debating and reforming laws to favour gender equality in the legislative authority. The study concluded that Jordan has not to set up a public and private sphere-that is, family domain where women are primarily located, as an ideology through laws and in the constitution. Laws modernization or liberalization is essential in order to empower individual and in particular women in Jordan. This means, the laws and basic human rights need to be taken seriously and reconstructed for each development or evolution era for the country benefit.
Keyword: Women's Rights, Citizenship, Family Law, Legal Reforms, Political Rights

The Impact of the Constitutional Amendments on the Guarantees of the Independence of the Member of the Chamber of Deputies in the Jordanian Legislator
Walid AL-Qadi
This article explores the impact of the constitutional amendments on guarantees of the independence of the member of the Chamber of Deputies in the Jordanian legislation. This study is divided into two sections. The first one is devoted the to discuss the guarantees related to membership of the deputy in the Chamber of Deputies, and the second one is devoted to the guarantees related to parliamentary immunity.
In this context, this study tries to discuss and monitor the impact of the constitutional amendments conducted by the Jordanian legislator on the guarantees of deputy to do his/her best. The article also tries to show the scope, the effectiveness and the significance role of these guarantees on the independence of the deputy. The study shows the guarantees related to the validity of deputy's membership where the judiciary became the competence side to judge the validity of the members of the Chamber of Deputies. In addition, this study explains that the Chamber of Deputies is the competence part to drop the membership or revoked it without any influence by the executive. The study also demonstrates important guarantees that ensure the deputy full and complete peace of mind and confidence to do his/her duty, including freedom of speech and opinion inside the Chamber of Deputies and to non- prosecuted criminally if he/she commits crimes outside the scope of the parliamentary job until getting permission from the Chamber of Deputies.
This search can be considered the first academic study that spots light on the impact of the recent constitutional amendments on the guarantees of the independence of the Jordanian deputy.