European Journal of Social Sciences

 Volume 45 No 2
November, 2014
Restorative Justice vs. Transactional Justice (Diversion Implementation Challenges in the Criminal Justice System Children in Indonesia)
Rodliyah, SH. MH
Law No. 11 of 2012 on the Criminal Justice System of the Child (Law SPPA) which replaces Law No. 3 of 1997 on Juvenile Justice has brought major changes in the juvenile criminal justice system in Indonesia is changing the paradigm of paradigms and Individual Treatment Paradigm Retributive be Restorative justice Paradigm. In addition, the Act also adopts SPPA diversion mechanism in the process of handling children in conflict with the law. Implementation of Law Number 11 of 2012 on the Criminal Justice System Children must be supported by the availability of the rules implementing the law, facilities and supporting infrastructure, human resources and implementing an adequate legal culture supportive community. Implementation of diversion as one way of realizing restorative justice must be accompanied by rehabilitation of the victims and perpetrators as well as community involvement. Implementation of diversion without rehabilitation will only generate transactional justice while the primary goal of restorative justice will not be achieved. Diversion transactional nature would be a threat to justice the perpetrators and victims in the future.
Keywords: restorative justice, transactional justice, diversion, juvenile justice system
Unveiling the New Coined Theme '' Management Hybridity'': A Study in Culture Borrowing
Martin Harris, Naser Khdour and Samir Al-Abbadi
Post-colonial theory has assumed that it should have had an impactdirect and indirecton management and organizational structures. However, evidence for such a relationship is not available in the Jordanian private sector due to the absence of empirical research in this field. This study aims to examine the ways in which the legacies of post-colonialism have shaped management in Jordanian enterprises, Case study investigation is used to explore and elucidate the 'management Hybridity' in these organizations, also, to posit an alternative account of cultural ‘borrowing’ that allows traditional and non-traditional norms to be juxtaposed in particular ways. Thus, this researchchallenges the idea that western management practices can be 'imposed' in Middle Eastern contexts and local situations, also the view that Arab societies can be seen as passive recipients of western technology and organisation.
Keywords: Post-colonial, management Hybridity, cultural borrowing, management practices, Jordan
Understanding and Interpretation of the Concept of Semiotic System of Iranian Environmental Art Works
Farzaneh Najafi and Merza Abbas
Sometime, Land art is out of the reach of common people. Generally, it is not found in the museums, but practiced in outer and natural spaces by using ephemeral materials. This movement as a new movement is started in 1960 in the world and came in Iran in 2001. Types of land art or Environmental art works in Iran are very different as compared to other countries, because majority of art works in Iran have rooted in symbols that they are inspired by primitive motifs from ancient rituals and semiotics culture. There for, the current study aims to investigate the knowledge of art students in symbols and message of artist and art works through the semiotics theory of Charles Peirce (1950). Methodology that used for this research was quantitative and data were analysed using paired-sample t-tests for testing the effects of the presentation styles on the viewers and ANOVA to test the differences in Recognition of Symbols, Emotional Responses, and Message Understanding. Findings of this research indicate that the gentle style Land art works produced better responses for understanding of the intended symbols, understanding of the intended messages even though they are mostly in the categories of alternative answers than the harsh style, which did not elicit enough responses. Furthermore, the harsh style triggered stronger emotional responses from the viewers’ perspectives.
Keywords: Land art, Iranian Land artists, symbol, semiotics
The Effect of Applying TQM Principles in the Development of Organizational Excellence from the Perspective of the Workers in the Arab Potash Company
Samer AL-Bashabsheh
The study aimed to investigate the effect of applying TQM principles in the development of organizational excellence from the perspective of the workers in the Arab Potash Company. To achieve these goals (474) questionnaires have been distributed to the sample population of the study; the rate of responsiveness was (90.72%). The researcher used SPSS to analyze data. The results indicated that the dimensions of TQM (Adoption of the philosophy of TQM, senior management commitment to the philosophy of total quality and its implementation support, the strong relationship with customers, training and development for staff, continuous improvement and development operations) have an impact on the Organizational Excellence. Also, it recommended that mainstreaming the development of the concept of total quality management to the workers and managers to raise and strengthen this concept by making it a priority of the organizational work, according to a consistent system of collective action.
Keywords: Total Quality Management, Organizational Excellence
Employability Status of Engineering Graduates: A Moderator Study
Jainab Zareena and Haider Yasmeen
In the present scenario, recruitment of graduates has become a greater challenge for the industry due to the enormous supply of students in the job market. A number of research studies show that most of the graduates and the educational institutions where they study are unable to meet the job demands of the industry. With this in mind the current study has made an attempt to explore the employability status of engineering graduates belonging to private self financing engineering college and private deemed university in Tamilnadu, India. The study investigates whether the individual factor (knowledge, skills, ability), institutional factor (teaching, training, infra structure, culture) play a major role in strengthening the dependent variable (self confidence level of an individual student in getting placed). The study further explores the moderating role of institutional factors in studying the relationship between the predictor variable (individual factor) and the dependent variable (self confidence). Using convenient sampling method, nine hundred and fifty engineering final year students of 2013 passed out batch were selected as respondents for the study. Seven hundred students belonged to private self financing engineering college affiliated to Anna University and the other two hundred and fifty students were from private deemed university. The data was elicited from the respondents using an adapted questionnaire. The cronbach’s reliability was found to be good. Content, face, construct and convergent validities are established for the study. The data is analysed using descriptive and inferential statistic. The findings revealed that group A and group B students of both the institutions differed from one another with regard to the study variables. Further, the change in relationships between the variable is explained through the interaction effect of the moderator variables in the study. The study concludes that each and every individual student must take initiative to develop their employability in terms of knowledge, skills and ability which would not only enable the graduates to gain first employment but also be very helpful in retaining a successful position in the chosen profession.
Keywords: Employability, Employability skills, Job market, Moderator effect.
Trade Policy Reforms and Technical Efficiency in the Nigerian Agricultural Sector
Roseline. J. Akinlade, Olayide. O. Olaoye and Adeola Carim-Sanni
The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of trade policy reforms on technical efficiency (TE) in the Nigerian agricultural sector, particularly, rice production. Secondary data covering a period of 1971-2012 was analysed using the stochastic production frontier approach. The results reveal that there was a sharp increase in TE during Ban period which persisted till the post-Ban. Import competition, interest rate spread and exchange rate are significant and positively related to TE. In contrary, Land was negatively related to TE. Hence, need for soil test before planting to determine suitability for rice production.
Keywords: Trade Policy Reforms, Technical Efficiency, Rice Production, Nigerian Agricultural Sector
Human Resource Management and Different Concepts of Emotional Intelligence
Wolfgang G. Scherl
The development of different concepts of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in Human Resource Management (HRM) has contributed to research and the differentiation of two main EI conceptualisations focusing on either individual’s maximum performance or typical performance (soft skills). Both EI conceptualisations in HRM attempt to define and explain an individual’s overall EI by using either ability EI (maximum performance) or trait EI (typical performance) theory and measures. This paper presents the main EI conceptualisations discussed in literature. It further contributes to the discussion of different EI theories and shed light onto the discussion whether or not both concepts may provide useful data for HRM, research, individual development and performance, and the workplace.
Keywords: Human Resource Management, Emotional Intelligence conceptualisations, Ability Emotional Intelligence, Trait Emotional Intelligence, Typical and Maximum Performance
The Main Factors of the Development of Small Enterprises in Kazakhstan
Nurseiit Nurlan Aitkaliuly
The purpose of the study is to determine main factors that affect the development of small enterprises in Kazakhstan as an oil producing country at national and regional levels. In this article the factor regression analysis was conducted and two econometric models were constructed. The results of the first model, which was built on time series for 2000-2011, shows, that small business is positively affected by the growth of country’s budget deficit to GDP, new loans to small business and current account deficit to GDP, and negatively by increasing of real effective exchange rate (REER) of national currency. The second model, which was build on regional panel data for 2005-2011, determined the main factors influencing share of the small businesses in GDP of Kazakhstan. They include labor productivity per employee in small enterprises, an average monthly wage per employee (as proxy for production cost), and a REER of national currency, as well as changes in world oil prices.
Keywords: development, small enterprises, main factors, model, Kazakhstan
JEL Classification: O120, M210
Identification of Barriers to Entrepreneurship of Female Household Heads Covered by Tehran Welfare Organization
Reza Shahmahmoudi and dr Parvaneh Danesh
One of the important tasks of social helpers is empowerment of vulnerable groups. One of these vulnerable groups is female household heads. One of the practices that can help empowering of them is to encourage female household heads to financial independence.
Entrepreneurship is something that can lead to financial independence of female household heads. Moreover, entrepreneurship can lead to better mental and social health of this vulnerable group. The first step in empowering female household heads through entrepreneurship is to identify their obstacles and entrepreneurship problems. Because by identification of these barriers it can be done more appropriate measures in order to empower them.
So, the aim of the present study is to identify entrepreneurship barriers of female household heads covered by Welfare Organization in Tehran. The method of the current study is survey.
The statistical population of this research is all female household heads covered by Welfare Organization in Tehran that 350 of them were selected randomly.
In order to collect data in this research, researcher-built questionnaire was used. In this research, the face validity and content aspect of the questionnaire were confirmed and reliability coefficient was obtained 0.81 using Cronbach’s alpha indicating desirable reliability of research questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed through self-creativity and then data were analyzed using SPSS software. Among problems that women encountered with them, the first ten ones are respectively the loss of fund to begin a job, existence of strictly official rules, gender discrimination and ignoring the ability of women by the society and responsible organizations, ignoring women in management affairs, over-concern about paying back the loans, emphasis on having personal fund instead of borrowing it from others, loss of pawn in order to get a loan, lack of proper support by government and governmental organizations, few facilities to begin a job by sponsor organizations, and unsuitable behavior of some organizations due to promotion of male-dominating in the society that statistically meaningful difference in prioritizing of these barriers was seen (p<0.05). Considering the findings of the current research, the programs in order to support female household heads economically and special facilities for them can provide their entrepreneurship basis. Also, gender discriminations against women especially female household heads can be decreased through acculturating using media and national media. The findings of the current research can be useful for social helpers, sponsor organizations and policymakers in direction of empowering the female household heads.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Female household heads, Entrepreneur.
Attitudes of Health Care Providers in the Jordanian Hospitals towards the Role of the JCI Standards Application on Creativity
Naser Saif, Naser Khdour and Omar Durrah
The research focuses on studying the impact of the JCI Standards application on creativity from both doctors and nurses' perspectives. It utilized a survey questionnaire to detect the opinions of the participants in the research sample of 330 staff members at six Jordanian hospitals. It applied an analytical descriptive methodology to discuss the responses of the participants to the enquiries of the study. In addition, it used descriptive statistics to investigate the study variables, tests (T) and simple regression analysis to breakdown and process the data and information. The study revealed that the six Jordanian hospitals are in fact applying the JCI standards and the impact of such application is manifested in creativity. However, these hospitals do not manifest the characteristics of creative organizations. In conclusion, the study provides a set of recommendations to help motivate creativity in hospitals.
Keywords: Attitudes of Health Care Providers, JCI Standards, Creativity, Jordanian Hospitals