European Journal of Social Sciences

 Volume 44 No 4
October, 2014
"The Role of Women in Isaan Culture under a Capitalist Society"
Arunee Sriruksa, Niyom Wongpongkham and Homhuan Buarabha
The aims of this research are 1) studying the role of women in Isaan Culture 2) studying the role of women in the Isaan culture under a capitalist society. This research is the study from both the documents and the observations from the field study, interviews, and focus group discussions from three different target groups of 40 people which consist of 1) academics, experts, knowledgeable people from the related field, 2) working women, and 3) students from the undergraduate level. The tools used in this research consist of observation forms by using participatory and non-participatory observation, interview forms, and focus group discussion. This research had found the following results; The study of the role of women in Isaan culture under a capitalist society is divided into three dimensions; the cultural dimension, the economic dimension, and the social dimension. The findings from this research are as followed; the role of women in Isaan culture in the past was the results from the social structure of agriculture which determined the working role between men and women. The role of women was within the cultural dimension within the family jurisdiction; the process of socialization, passing on, and remaking through teachings, beliefs, ceremonies, and traditions. Society had designated the role of men outside of the family jurisdiction both within the economic dimension and the social dimension which had given men the experiences, skills, and power. Somehow, the role of Isaan women today is the result from the structure of the capitalist society that focuses on the economic dimension which had pushed women to raise their own statuses. Part of the effort depends on the education and other part on generating income for their families by becoming part of the labor systems within the urban area. This had caused women to feel the increase in their own values and the pride for themselves and their families; and also give them more acceptances within the society. The changes in the role of women between a certain age groups by stepping more into the economic dimension and the social dimension affect the acceptance by the society and men as well as building the negotiating power and power to make decisions in the economic base which can be considered as the maintenance the balance in living together within today’s society. While women try to adjust their roles in entering the economic and social dimension, the cultural dimension is being rapidly affected by the receiving of new culture into the society from traveling into the urban area for education, work, or living. The spreading of certain cultures had caused the socialization process within the society both in the content and format aspects. There has been a clear fade out of the cultural content from the past because what had been passed on is not relevant to the reality with today’s society. The spreading of the culture from people traveling in to settle down within the cities or on the outskirt of the cities or returning from to their hometown help hasten the spreading of way of life within the city in the thoughts, beliefs, and practice to a broader area. That means that the traditional cultural dimension is fading and might eventually fade away in the future. Additional findings that might become another important factor which can affect the changes in the roles, perceptions, beliefs, and the acceptance of the society are the taking of the opportunities in using the benefit from the Thai Women Empowerment Funds effectively by focusing on the movement within the social dimensions within the youth and the working women who will eventually become the core mechanic in the society, the creation of the continuous networking, and providing a space for women to participate in the development of the city in order to keep up with the changes that will come with the ASEAN community in the near future, which should be the right direction to development which will benefit women and the society as a whole.
Technical Efficiency and Interest Rate Spread in the Indonesian Banking Industry
Nury Effendi, Rina Indiastuti, Taslim Z. Yunus and Maman Setiawan
This research investigates the effect of technical efficiency on the interest rate spread in the Indonesian banking sector. This research uses the sample of banks listed in the Indonesian Stock Exchange Market during the period from 2003 until 2012. Technical efficieny is estimated using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) with bootstrapping approach. Regarding the role of bank, the technical efficiency is estimated using the intermediation approach in the DEA. The effect of technical efficiency on the banks’ spread is estimated using panel data regression. This research finds that the banks listed in the Indonesian Stok Exchange Market are moderately efficient with the average technical efficiency of 0.89. The interest rate spread is relatively high during the period of estimation with the spread of 6.66%, on average. This research also finds that the technical efficiency does not affect the banks’ spread indicating that the Indonesian banking sector may not be competitive.
Keywords: Keywords: technical efficiency, banking pricing, interest rate spread, Indonesian banking sector, data envelopment analysis
Assessment of MEHR Housing Policy in Iran by using SWOT Technique (Case Study: Khoram Abad City)
Mahdi Garavand, Iraj Kalhor, Fatemeh Olfaty and Kourosh Khodayari
After industrial revolution, government has been disabled in order to preparing housing due to growth of population. For appropriate performance in housing, should be adapted by climatic conditions of the region, the number of people who reside in units, material of building. So it is necessary regard to needs that creating comfortable building. Providing house for various people in societies has become the main concerns for governance in countries. Iran as a country with the population growing and providing housing for this population has been one of the main concerns is government. In recent decade, MEHR housing project has been considered as serious policy by the government in Iran. MEHR housing project is the wide project to construct housing by government for low-income people in order to reduce the price of house. This is Mass production of housing units in order to control the supply and demand in the housing market until the end of the project. The main objective of this project is providing housing for homeless people with priority to low-income strata. The main object of research is assessment impact MEHR housing policy in Iran. This research is applied. The research method is "descriptive – analytical" and questionnaire is used to collect data. On the other hand was used" Quantitative method" in order to analyzing. Also we used SWOT technique
Keywords: MEHR housing, Satisfaction, housing policy, Iran, Khoram Abad.
Poverty Measures with Entropy Weight Methods
Melvi Elizabeth Romero Castillo, Eduardo GutiérrezGonzález, Olga V.Panteleeva and Sergio Raúl Jiménez Jerez
This paper proposes a comparison of poverty measures of the states of Mexico,describing two methods for multi-attribute decision and a third used multivariate analysis method is proposed. The use of each of the methods is based on objective considerations of the information entropy to measure poverty, analysing 12 socioeconomic variables. For each method, two measures are proposed; in the first the entropy of each variable is weighted, and in the second the entropy is reduced by gathering the 12 variables into four groups: basic social needs deprivation, quality and living spaces deprivation, social infrastructure provided by the government deprivation and the buying power of current income. The values of the 12 variables were obtained through CONEVAL and ENlGH for three decades 1992, 2000 and 2010, and the Census of Population and Housing of the 1990s, 2000 and 2010. With the proposed methods, the states of Mexico were ranked and indicated using a poverty map
Keywords: Additive value function, CRITIC method, entropy method, principal components, poverty measurement
Theoretical Evaluation of Afghanistan's New Constitution Law in Terms of Democracy
Poopak Dehshahri
Drawing up and approval of Afghanistan's 9th constitution followed the democratic approach in accordance with the Bonn agreement. This paper is aimed at dealing with the Afghanistan's constitution principles using two (supportive and evolutionary) liberal democracy models. Throughout this evaluation five indexes including anthropology, the “Rights” issue, the political system, democracy and the democracy realization processes have been used as the basis for analyses. The new constitution of Afghanistan was consistent with both above mentioned models in terms of five indexes.
Keywords: Afghanistan, theoretical evaluation, constitution, democracy
The Islamic Banking System: A New Economic Competitive System
Mahmoud Ababneh
This paper deals with concept of Islamic banking and its system of finance has become one of the competitive financial systems that try to avoid the exploitation of clients on the basis of profit-loss-Sharing. The Islamic banking system achieved a long track of success and efficacy and expansion in the last year. It became one of the international financial components which need and deserve more studying and researching. This paper is dedicated to search this subject in two parts. The first part is to illustrate the roots of the system in the Islamic Sharia law and the second part is to explore the advantages which have been shown through the 2008 financial crisis.
Keywords: Islamic Banking, Conventional Banking, interest in Islam, Riba, Profit-loss-sharing (PLS).
Framing within Critical Discourse Analysis
Haleh Mojarrabi Tabrizi and Biook Behnam
Critical discourse analysis starts with the assumption that ‘language use is always social’ and that ‘discourse both reflects and constructs the social world’ (Rogers 2004:5). A critical analysis might explore issues such as gender, ideology and identity and how these are reflected in particular texts. This might commence with an analysis of the use of discourse and move from there to an explanation and interpretation of the discourse. From here, the analysis might proceed to deconstruct and challenge the texts, tracing ideologies and assumptions underlying the use of discourse, and relating these to different views of the world, experience and beliefs (Clark 1995). This work is a review of framing within critical discourse analysis which makes an attempt to analyze this subject from major perspectives and present an easy to grasp perception while comparing diverse views in this field. Framing is a central discursive strategy that occurs in virtually all genres of discourse and may be implemented as a very useful method of satisfaction, often having deep political, social or behavioral results. Hereby, you will be presented with the view of framing and to various approaches to frame analysis within discourse analysis, as we explore various genres of discourse and investigate framing and framing strategies such as metaphor and lexical choice.
Keywords: framing, critical discourse analysis
Rethinking Nigeria’s Strategic Relationship with its Immediate Neighbours
Sheriff F. Folarin, Lady A. Ajayi and Faith O. Olanrewaju
This paper strengthens the perspective that the national security and development of a state are predicated upon the good and strategic relationship of countries with their immediate neighbours. It centres its argument around the fact that the global system in the 21st century has been characterized by ups and downs that have shaken the grounds of global peace and security and that growing diminution of the “global village”, due to increasing interdependence of states and non-state actors,has necessitated an ever-rising need for collective security on global and regional scale. Nigeria’s foreign policy has often been said to be characterized by the principle of good neighbourliness for the purpose of secure neighbourhood and national security. Indeed, the numerous security challenges of the country at present, such as ethnic conflicts,religious fundamentalism, power tussle and insurgency, require shared security intelligence, regional military cooperation and of course, good neighbourliness. This enterprise constitutes a search for a deeper understanding of ‘good neighbourliness’ and suggests a redefinition of that stance to reflect realpolitik. The paper seeks to critically identify the new ways in which Nigeria can strategically relate with its immediate neighbours, including Benin, Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Equatorial Guinea and nearby countries that do not share boundaries with it. Emphasis is made on the need for the government to pursue dynamic, tactical and strategic defence policy, which will include ensuring the impenetrability and prevention of infiltration of its boundaries, in view of the fact most of the national security problems testing the corporate existence of Nigeria todayare from its borders.
Keywords: National Security, Defensive Policy, Immediate Neighbours, Foreign Policy
The Extent of the Application of Transparency in Administrative Disciplinary Decisions for Students at King AbdulAziz University from the Viewpoint of Students
Najat Mohammad Saeed Al Saigh
The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent of the application of transparency in administrative disciplinary decisions for students at the University of King AbdulAziz from the viewpoint of students, and also aimed to investigate the effect of year, and GPA on the point of view of students. To achieve the purpose of the study, a questionnaire was distributed among students. The study sample consisted of 90 students 48 males and 42 females from king AbdulAziz University. Means and standard deviations and t-test were used to analyze the results. The results showed that there were statistically significant differences in the views of the students on the extent of the application of transparency in administrative disciplinary decisions, also showed a statistically significant differences at the level of significance (α ≥ 0,05) in their views due to the gender variable, as there are statistically significant differences at the level of significance (α ≥ 0,05) in their views due to the year variable, and results also showed the existence of clear statistically significant differences in the views of the students on the extent of the application of transparency in administrative disciplinary decisions due to the general point average of the students (GPA).
Keywords: Transparency, Administrative Disciplinary Decisions
Evaluating the Economic Return to Participatory Commune Cultural Post Offices in Viet Nam - An Endogenous Switching Regression Model Approach
Truong Tuan Linh, Teruaki Nanseki and Yosuke Chomei
The commune cultural post office (CCPO) is an important program in Viet Nam. Its duty is to contribute to the development of the social and economic aspects of the country, allowing people to easily gain knowledge about the policies of the government. However, after 16 years, there are some disadvantages and it has become unsuccessful and not effective. There is no research that uses an econometric approach to estimate the implications of the CCPO and to suggest certain policies based on the results that enhance or cut off the program. This paper aims to identify factors that influence the probability of participation in the CCPO, to estimate the factors affecting economic outcome indicators and to quantify the benefit of the participant decision for both groups. Endogenous switching regression analysis was used for the farm level data in Son La province, Viet Nam for the first time. The results indicate a positive and significant influence of the head of household’s education and owning livestock on participation, as well as the impact of extension services on household income per capita. With regard to the main hypothesis, it also unexpectedly suggests that differences in participation in the CCPO are not really meaningful.
Keywords: CCPO, Endogenous switching regression, Participant decision, Selection bias, Viet Nam, Son La, Northwest upland