European Journal of Social Sciences

 Volume 44 No 3
September, 2014
"An Analysis and Evaluation of Intellectual Property Rights Protection Provided under TRIPS Agreement"
Mohammad Saeed Abdallah ALSheyab, Ma'en Abdel rahim Abdel aziz Juwaihan and Faisal Abdelhafedh AL Shawabkah
This research paper seeks to analyze and evaluate protection of intellectual property rights provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (hereinafter referred to as TRIPS). Unlike TRIPS, Primary intellectual property rights agreements suffered a major defect as they included no organizational or procedural arrangements for the implementation of subjective rules. The absence of practical and procedural arrangements for implementation rendered these agreements ineffective on the implementation side. TRIPS Agreement obliged member states to take effective implementation measures to enforce intellectual property rights covered by its provisions. TRIPS Agreement has adopted broad understanding for the concept of protectable intellectual property rights; the result was including and covering all fields of intellectual creativity and inventions regardless of the type or the field of such creativity. It extended its legal coverage to include works that were previously, outside its coverage. Many thought that the issue of intellectual property rights protection was a domestic or territorial issue, however, that has changed in the era of internet and digital media. Digital media contributed to the rise of so called “ubiquitous intellectual property rights violations”. Intellectual property rights are no longer confined to the territorial boundaries of world countries. Courts will be forced to consider the application of law or laws to cover the territorial scope of the claim.
The Characteristics of Child Poverty in Hungary – Regional Inequalities and Regional Model Programs
Ibolya Czibere and Andrea Rácz
Child poverty is a multi-dimensional phenomenon and the overlapping of its dimensions exponentially threatens the psychosocial development of the children. Several social and psychological examinations prove that the permanent poverty in childhood does not disappear without a trace. When a child is growing up in a multiply disadvantaged family and does not have the material environment that promotes chances for mobility and when the child is deprived from these activities that otherwise the society consider as norms and his/her human relationships are not balanced then her/his psychosocial development is at risk and the chances for healthy development are decreasing. This can cause the reproduction of poverty and increases the risk of social exclusion in the future. In this study, we present the Hungarian child protection’s situation firstly, including the characteristics of child poverty and educational participation of disadvantaged children. Then we explain the most important experiences of programs against child poverty.
Keywords: Keywords: Child poverty in Hungary, Sure Start program, fight against child poverty
Workplace Violence and Hospital Initiatives
Afnan Sharif Saleh and Naser Ibrahim Saif
Workplace violence (WPV) has become an important fact in the world today and is a serious public health issue that is associated with significant and pernicious health outcomes. The current study was conducted in 2014 at Bashir Hospital in Amman, Jordan to examine both the features of WPV in a Jordanian public hospital and the actions undertaken by the hospital to cope with WPV. A mixed qualitative and quantitative methodology was used to generate the study data. The study found that the hospital environment is marked by violence, that healthcare providers were exposed to multiple forms of violence, that the most common form of violence consisted of verbal abuse and that the hospital has not adopted any international or local standards to help create a violence-free environment. The main recommendation of this study is to urgently apply appropriate engineering and management standards to help reduce WPV in hospitals.
Keywords: Workplace violence, Public hospital, Engineering initiatives, Management initiatives, Jordan.
Formulation of the Qualitative Research in Practical Business Inquiryabout Corporate Environmentalism
Saeed Behjati and Siti Norezam Othman
This paper aims describing the foundations of qualitative inquiry in order to illustrate, how coexisting ontology or the existing reality and epistemological assumptions of known,cultivatethe case study type of inductive methodology. This paper begins with the scope and path of subjective research and through acknowledging the philosophical assumption; drive through the post-positivist structure and describe the systematical process of rigor inquiry, expressing the need for a cognitive interaction and cooperative knowledge construction in business research.
Keywords: Three Coexisting Paradigms (Ontology, Epistemology, Methodology), Qualitative Inquiry, Philosophical Assumption, Subjective Business Research
Globalisation and Islamic Banking: The Effect of Globalization on the growth and stability of Islamic Banking in the United Arab Emirate (UAE)
Yasmin Abdellatif Alsarabi and Faten Mohammad Barham
The purpose of this research is to investigate the growth, development, and challenges facing Islamic banking. More specifically as it has emerged as a leading competitor to the traditional world of the conventional banking system. I narrowed my research to look specifically at the United Arab Emirates, the positive effects that globalization has had on the Islamic banking system can be seen first hand, despite the current economic crisis facing UAE and the world, for as with all benefits, comes challenges. Through the methodological approach, I was able to retrieve my data from a wide range of participants from religious, educational, cultural, and financial backgrounds. I, also, conducted in-depth interviews with bank officials in the UAE, from the two competing banking systems, conventional and Islamic. I discovered through this research, that in the few decades since Islamic banking has re-emerged in the global financial market, it has become a viable competitor to the conventional banking system. Islamic banking has a solid foundation and appears to be continually growing, despite the recent economic slowdown. Islamic banking continues to gain market share through their ethical approach to handling all their customers’ financial needs. It is based on a realistic and tangible concept of finance, rather than dealing with money as a commodity. This is an important issue in the world of finance due to the fact that Islamic banking continues to gain market share and expanding into new markets.
SARABHAÑÑA ISAN: Folk Aesthetics Based on Buddhist Aesthetics
Buncha Kiatjarungphan and Chalermsak Pikulsri
This qualitative study aims to find the historical background and current status, folk aesthetics and folk aesthetics based on Buddhist aesthetics of Sarabhañña Isan. The findings reveal that there was not an obvious origin of Sarabhañña poems; however it was similar to the Gavyani verses. Its content covers 5 categories, including the history of Buddha, Dharma Topics, Bodhisativa, occasional activities and self-introduction and farewell. The rhythms of Sarabhañña were assumed to originate from 5 sources, consisted of Brahman and Buddhist chanting, baby lullabies, the central Thai monk administrative committee and traditional Isan music. There were both traditional and modern clothing and posture, ritual and ritual offering in Sarabhañña activities currently. The aesthetics of Sarabhañña Isan were found to be simple. Their aesthetics were the use of local wisdom to make their Sarabhañña unique, the non-difference between the chanters and audience, and the diversity they have and the freedom of creation and expression. The aesthetics based on Buddhist aesthetics were revealed to be following the 3 dimensions of beauty, including the puritan content, the practice orders with precepts, contemplation and wisdom, and the life values of being reliable, beneficial and suggestive.
Keywords: Sarabhañña Isan, Folk Aesthetics, Buddhist Aesthetics
The Reflection of Identity, Historical, Politics and Implication from Monuments in Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Maysing Chanboutdy
This study is aimed to find the history and background, current status, and reflection, identity, history, politics and harmonious cooperation of monuments in Laos. The study reveals that the monuments in Lao People’s Democratic Republic were historically established since the Old Stone Age and were constructed with an objective to honor and praise the dead people, or as commemoration of good merits to them. They were normally made in various forms, such as stone jars, stone stands, standing stones, and stone coffins and graves. In the medieval age, it was found that the monuments were mostly constructed as a Phra That or stupa. In these days, the monuments have been developed to construct of important figures, in both half and full body forms. For the reflection of identity of monuments in Laos, it was found to be simple, honest, and innocent, whereas the historical reflection was about the prosperity of visual arts in various periods. In the political reflection, it was found to be about fighting and changing of country’s ruling system. In the reflection of harmonious cooperation of monuments in Laos, it was revealed about the cooperation and unity of fighting against the two empire nations as to maintain their nationhood.
Keywords: Monuments, Reflection, Identity, History, Politics, Harmonious cooperation, Lao PDR
The Informal Sector in Emerging Economies: Case of Bush Rum in Trinidad and Tobago
Francis Felician, Denise Thompson and Nazim Mohamed
Developing or emerging market economies (EMEs) are characterized as transitional, meaning they are in the process of moving from a closed to an open market economy while building accountability within the system (Bishnoi, 2007). Existence of this economy has been a result of low skills, and low-level literacy, layoffs because of retrenchment due to economic and financial crises, decrease in agricultural production, falling wage ranges due to inflation and widening income inequality and poverty as reasons for growth in this sector (ILO, 2001). Schneider (2002) mentioned the fact that gathering statistics about who is engaged in informal activities, the frequencies with which these activities occur and the magnitude of them, is crucial for making effective and efficient decisions regarding the allocations of a country’s resources in this area. Thus, the research aims to determine the motivations for informal employment in Trinidad and Tobago, using bush rum manufacturers as the sample population.
Keywords: Informal sector, emerging market economies, bush rum
Does Oil Price Granger-Cause Macroeconomic Effects? Evidence on Dataset from Oman
Ahmed Nawaz Hakro and Abdallah Mohammed Omezzine
The study offers explanation to what extent the oil prices are inter linked with exchange rate, output and price levels in Granger-Cause relationship framework. The study applies a number of tests such as unit root test, Wald test in a co-integration framework to determine the long run and short relationship among the variables. Results find significant Granger-cause relationship among the set of variables such as oil price, output, money supply and government consumption expenditure variables. Changes in real oil prices do not Granger-cause real effective exchange rate and price levels to change. However, changes in money supply significantly Granger-cause output to change. Continuation of a mixture of stabilization policies may serve well the policy objectives of containing inflation and fiscal stability in short run.
Keywords: Causality, Granger-Cause, Links, Oil Price, Macroeconomic Effects and Walt Test
Firm Characteristics and T&D Practice Gaps among Large Manufacturing Firms in Ethiopia
Gemechu Waktola Olana and Ronald L. Jacobs
The purpose of this study was to see the relationships among characteristics of large manufacturing firms; to explore if levels of employee training and development (T&D;) design practices differed among the firms based on those characteristics; and to investigate the magnitude and nature of gaps between levels of T&D; design practices. For data collection, samples of 134 (66%) firms were selected based on proportional stratified random sampling technique out of 196 public and private large manufacturing establishments from 13 industry groups. The response rate was 57%. Data collection instruments were developed based on ADDIE model for training design and theory of planned behavior. Both validity and reliability were established for the instruments. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and t-tests were employed. Findings showed that there were associations among distributions of some firm characteristics while no evidences of associations were found for others. Furthermore, current and desired levels of T&D; design practices were found to be significantly different among firms based on some firm characteristics. The practice gaps on training design/development and evaluation stages were significantly larger compared to the stages of training need analysis and implementation. The results have enormous firm-level implications in terms of shaping their HRD interventions.
Keywords: employee, training, T&D;, firm characteristics, Ethiopia
Fantasy Worlds in the Novel of: (Ahramian) by Jordanian Novelist Ghassan El Ali
Sanaa Shalan
The Jordanian novelist Ghassan El Ali presents in his novel (Ahramian) (2) a fantasy world which innovates a new experiment with high sensitivity which reflects a special awareness towards things whether in form or content. This awareness is based on the techniques of breaking the narrative sequence beyond the traditional plot. It dives into the inner part and clutches to the appearance expanding the significance of the reality, so the dream, the myth and poetry return to it. It puts the miraculous and the extraordinary in the place of granted reality without astonishment. It provides openness to the worlds and universes of the subconscious, but time has been broken and marginalized within rare harmony.
Keywords: Fantasy novel, Jordanian novel, the novel of (Ahramian) by novelist Ghassan El Ali.
Average Treatment Effect Estimation of Determinants of Adoption Rates of NERICA Rice Varieties in Nigeria
Awotide, D.O. and Adejobi O.A.
This paper examined the determinants of adoption rates of NERICA varieties in Nigeria using Average Treatment Effect (ATE). The paper used data from a sample of 600 households and counterfactual outcomes framework to show that the true population adoption rate correspond to the ATE which measures the effect of treatment on a person randomly selected from a population in six states of Nigeria. The states are Ekiti, Kaduna, Nassarawa, Ogun, Ondo, and Taraba and the data were collected between August to September 2009. The main instruments for data collection were well-structured questionnaires administered in each state. The results of the estimation of the joint exposure and adoption rate, the full population adoption rate (ATE) (which inform on the demand of the technology by the target population) was estimated to be 89% by the ATE Probit adoption model. This means that the NERICA adoption rate in the six states could have been 89% instead of the actually observed 57% joint exposure and adoption rate, if the whole population were exposed to the NERICA varieties during the survey or before. The corresponding estimates of the population adoption gap (i.e. the non exposure bias), was -30% and was statistically significantly different from zero at the 1% level. The adoption rate among the presently NERICA exposed subpopulation (ATE1) was estimated to be 90% while the estimation adoption rate for the non exposed subpopulation was 88%. The expected population selection bias (PSB) was 0.6% and statistically significantly different from zero at the 1% level. These estimated adoption rates implies that NERICA project has actually disseminated NERICA 1 variety. In the Probit exposure model, adoption of NERICA variety was significantly determined by marital status, level of formal education, primary occupation, and number of field days attended by the rice farmers. For the ATE Probit adoption model, level of formal education was the only significant determinant of adoption. However, for the classic Probit joint exposure and adoption model, level of formal education, primary occupation, number of field days attended, ownership of farm land, and farm size significantly determine adoption of NERICA in the study areas.
Keywords: NERICA, adoption rates, average treatment effect, Nigeria