European Journal of Social Sciences

 Volume 43 No 4
June, 2014
The Iconography of Mural Paintings in Luang Prabang
Sippa Suksamran, Soranart Sinuraibhan and Sunet Photisan
This research aims to study the history, current status and problems, and the iconography of mural painting in Luang Prabang. The population and sample group in the area of 9 temples used in this qualitative research includes; gold-paint stencil murals in Wat Xieng Thong, Wat Wichun Rath, Wat Aham, Wat That Noi, and Wat That Luang, colored murals in Wat Mai Suwannaphumaham, Wat Sri Buddha Baat, Wat Pa Huak, Wat Long Khun, and glass murals in Wat Xieng Thong. The study finds that mural paintings appeared in Luang Prabang during the 22nd Buddhist century. The study of the current status of mural painting in total 9 temples finds that the murals painted for longer time are facing the issue of humidity in both rainy and cold seasons. These climate conditions have caused the paints peeling off, as well as the heat from burning candles and incents used in religious worships damaged the murals. Not knowing the impacts may happen, humans’ touching, scratching and marking also caused damage to the painting. Hard to prevent, earthquake was one of the causes that took part in damaging the painting. In addition, the study of iconography of mural painting finds that the paintings painted in the royal temples depict the life of Buddha and stories from the Jataka Tales as to teach people who cannot read or those in general to learn to do good deeds.
Keywords: Mural Painting, Luang Prabang, Mural Painting of Jataka Tales, Temples in Luang Prabang.
Violent Disciplinary Practices Towards Children among Caregivers in Vietnam: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Nguyen Ho Minh Trang and Nguyen Huu Chau Duc
Violence against children within the family is one of the most common forms of child maltreatment. We used data from the 2011 Vietnam MICS to examine association between the violent disciplinary practices and socio-demographic factors among Vietnamese mothers/primary care givers. The prevalence of violent disciplinary practices among mothers/primary caregivers was 72.9%. Older women (AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9), having higher education (AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.9), belonging to richest quintile (AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9) were less likely to have violent disciplinary practices. Other factors were likely associated with higher violent disciplinary practices included having 2 or 3 or more children, and negative attitudes towards partner violence. Importantly, women who had negative attitudes towards violent discipline were more than three times more likely to have violent disciplinary practices. Developing strategies that include the above interventions could play a crucial role in achieving the decrease violent disciplinary practices in Vietnamese caregivers.
Impact of Religious Teachings on Reduction of Violence Against Children
Mohammad Reza Sharafi
The fact that the family foundation and the role of children in this foundation have been undermined is currently a devastating threat. ‘War against family’ is the title of a controversial book in this regard. In many circumstances, the home is a place in which children are victimized and from which they are afraid of. Religion, a firm and reliable structure, has greatly helped families and children. Providing deep insight about children and instigating positive views towards them, religion tries not only to combat against violence towards kids but also encourage merciful methods in treating them. This article reviews the Islamic principles related to the upbringing of children, their needs, and their rights.
Keywords: Religion, Religious principles, Child, Violence, Basic rights and needs.
Further Evaluation of Trends in Students’ Academic Performance at the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination in Financial Accounting
Adetayo, Janet Oyebola
This study is a follow-up of a study carried out by the author in the year 2005 to establish the trends in students’ Academic performance in Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination in Financial Accounting. Due to the necessity for evaluation at regular interval to establish how a programme is fairing, the new study was embarked upon to ascertain the extent of improvement in students’ performance between the year 2005 and 2010. One thousand eight hundred and eighty (1860) students whose results were released by WAEC in Financial Accounting between 2006 and 2010 from six secondary schools in Ijebu-North local government Area of Ogun State were used for the study. The analysis of the collected data was carried out using simple percentages and the chi-square test of significance as inferential statistic. The pattern of students’ performance in SSCE Financial Accounting, within the study period revealed a downward trend in which majority of the students had poor performance of grade level D7 and F9. The study also revealed that there is a significant difference between male and female students performance in Financial Accounting in favour of female students. There is also a significant difference between private and public school students’ performance in Financial Accounting. Private school teachers probably are better monitored and supervised to deliver quality teaching. From the findings of this study, it can therefore be concluded that there is unseemingly downward trend in the performance of the students at the senior secondary school level with slight improvement in the girls’ child performance and that private schools can perform at their best if given opportunity and time to do so.
Corporate Insolvency: International Co-Operation by United Kingdom Courts
Cheng, W. W. Andy
The tradition of close international co-operation in cross border insolvency proceedings between the United Kingdom and other countries, most are her former or remaining colonial possessions, is long exist. In the case of insolvency proceedings, statutory provision for international assistance to be given by UK courts, on a restricted basis, to the courts of a number of overseas countries is made by section 426 of the Insolvency Act 1986. The key provisions in section 426, from the genuinely international point of view, are subsection (4) and subsection (5). Designated countries nowadays can apply to the UK courts for assistance in insolvency proceedings. Upon receipt a letter of request from the court of a designated country, UK court will consider to apply either UK insolvency law or the relevant foreign insolvency law. The general principle is the court ‘shall assist’. The key question is what means by ‘shall assist’ to apply the insolvency law which is applicable by either court in relation to comparable matters. In this paper, it will attempt to review how the UK courts facilitate cross border insolvency under section 426 of the Insolvency Act 1986.
Keywords: International Insolvency, Cross Border Insolvency, Liquidation.
JEL Classification Codes: K330,K400,K490.
Any Legal Remedies for Economic Units in a Cashless Nigeria?
Jonathan E. Ogbuabor, Chukwunweike A. Ogbuabor and Gladys C. Aneke
The introduction of cashless economy in Nigeria is expected to herald a regime of boundless benefits, to the government, banks, as well as bank customers. The transition from a cash-based economy to a cashless one is also supposed to be seamless based on the presupposition that prerequisite structures have been put in place to safeguard the banking public. However, it appears that the cashless economy policy of the Nigerian government was embarked upon without any or adequate legal framework on the ground. That being the case, this paper examines the position of customers with special reference to remedies available to them in the event of failure by the banks to meet up with their obligations under the cashless economy initiative. The paper finds that in the absence of an adequate statutory protection for consumers of e-banking services in Nigeria, the common law has made the banks the king rather than the customers, leaving the customers prostrate and powerless as it were, in the pursuit of legal remedies for breach or failure to perform by the banks.
Keywords: Legal Remedies; Cashless Economy; e-Banking; Contractual Compliance; Nigeria.
JEL Classification: K2; O3; E5; K12; N17.
Affective - Social Competencies, Satisfaction of Quality of Work and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Iranian Nurses
RahelehFeili, Mehdi Mohammadi and Elham Mahmoodi Yaganeh
This study examines the relationship between affective - social competencies, satisfaction from quality of work and organizational citizenship behavior of Iranian nurses as a structural equation model. The population included all Iranian nurses in the public and private hospitals. By random cluster sampling method 152 nurses were selected. The instruments included affective- social competencies scale, quality of working life scale and organizational citizenship behavior scale. The results of statistical evaluations in exploration showed that: 1.There was a significant and positive relationship between nurses’ affective - social competencies and their organizational citizenship behavior. 2. There was a significant and positive relationship between nurses’ affective - social competencies and their satisfaction from quality of work. 3.Nurses’ affective - social competencies via their satisfaction from quality of Work has a significant and positive relationship with their organizational citizenship behavior .
Keywords: Affective-Social Competencies, Satisfaction, Quality of Work, Organizational Citizenship behavior.
Informal Sector and Domestic Resource Mobilization in Nigeria: A Community Taxation Option
Jonathan Emenike Ogbuabor, Gladys C. Aneke and Chukwunweike A. Ogbuabor
The main objective of this study is to enhance the revenue mobilization efforts from the informal sector in Nigeria by proposing a framework that would eliminate the economic losses occasioned by this sector of the Nigerian economy. The study examined the main features of the informal sector enterprises in Nigeria and noted specifically the tendency to evade tax. The study found that the tendency to evade tax as well as other challenges of tax administration in Nigeria account for the poor revenue mobilization from the informal sector. Thus, to eliminate the economic losses arising from the informal sector, the study recommends the adoption of the community taxation framework wherein the tax authorities would partner with the various associations in this sector towards a more comprehensive and transparent tax administration in Nigeria.
Keywords: Informal Sector; Community Taxation; Domestic Resource Mobilization; FIRS; Nigeria.
From Public Administration Ontology to Map of Study
Mohamad Mousakhani, Mostafa Zamanyan and Khadijeh Rouzbehani
The identity crisis of public administration is related to both academic and societal aspect of it. In this article, in order to comprehend the study of public administration’s theoretical multiplicity and fertility, a conceptual map of the identity of it has been established. The model, has proposed four main approaches: practical wisdom, practical experience, scientific knowledge and relativist perspectives for studying public administration. As it won’t be successful to map the study if we take one of its major emphases or one of its possible approaches or concepts, we have identified the core concept before trying to map the study.
Emission Responsibilities and Relative Importance of the Productive Sectors in Turkey
Celal Tasdogan
Turkey has realized high growth rates during the 2002-2011 period, with the possible exception of 2008 and 2009 years. It is generally argued that rapid growth may cause environmental damage, especially in the form of air pollution. In other words, the productive sectors produce two types of outputs namely economic outputs and air pollutants. This study used input-output matrixes to find out the ranking of the sectors from key to weak since such a ranking provides information on the environmental effects. For this purpose, air pollutant quantities caused by the production process of the sectors for the 2002-2011 period has been investigated depending on the input-output tables constructed for Turkey in the World Input Output Database (WIOD) Project. These input-output tables include the emission satellite accounts, which are CO2 emissions and other air pollutants, respectively N2O, CH4, N2O, NOx, SOx, CO, NMVOC and NH3, disaggregated for 34 sectors. The results of the study have indicated that 16 of the 34 sectors cause environmental hazards like greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants which derive global warming potential, acidification potential and damaging to the ozone layer formation. It is anticipated that the findings of the current study may contribute to sustainable growth debates as well as environmental policy implementations in Turkey.
Keywords: Environmental Input Output Matrix, Key Sector, Forward and Backward Linkages Effects, Emission Responsibility
JEL Classification Codes: L60, D57, Q01, Q51.