European Journal of Social Sciences

 Volume 41 No 3
 February, 2014
TParticipation for Regulatory Capture or Political Capture ?
Kuo-Tai Cheng
Independent regulatory agencies have recently been the focus of controversy in Taiwan, making them worthy of further investigation. After analyzing the survey conducted in this study, the perceived emergence of regulatory governance was determined to be related to altering regulatory enforcement, changing understanding of the regulator. This paper argues that the regulatory regime of the NCC is not only characterized by a conflict of interests, but also by breaching standards of appropriateness, leading to inherent tension and potential regulatory failure (regulatory capture or political capture). It is also shaped by competing values in the regulatory space of institutional complexity.
Keywords: Regulatory governance, regulatory capture, political capture, regulation.
Measuring Airport Efficiency: Productivity and Operation
Therdchai Choibamroong and Sukhuman Klamsaengsai
Since demands on air transport have increased in consecutive years, not only airlines, but also airports are facing higher competition. Measuring airport efficiency is one crucial issue to maintaining and enhancing their quality. This research paper is aimed at studying the nature of measuring airport efficiency, synthesizing associated variables in measuring airport efficiency, and exploring gaps on the measurement. This research found that various research focuses on airport productive efficiency and employs numerical inputs and outputs to measure airport efficiency. A gap on productive efficiency measurement is that results on the measurement reflect only the view of the numeric data without a view of the reality or what occurs in practice. The alternative perspective called ‘operational efficiency’ is also brought up in this research. Fewer studies on operational efficiency are found. Even though this study intends to explore both evaluation aspects with different variables, efforts are mainly put on trying to retrieve the whole picture of the latter aspects. Both perspectives can cover the evaluation on both airside and landside operations of airports. Only some characteristics are incompatibly raised. Related variables in measuring airport efficiency are presented as well.
Keywords: Airport Efficiency, Airport Productivity, Airport Operation.
The Synchronization of Legislation Regulations in Placement and Protection of the Indonesian Labor who Working Abroad
Lalu Husni
Unprotected Indonesian Labor (TKI) who work abroad because of legislation regulation in placements and protection Indonesian Labor by Number 39 of 2004 Unsynchronized legislation vertically or horizontally. That legislation vertically does not reflect the substance of article purpose 28 D (2). Article 28 I (4) RI State legislation of 1945. Act No. 39 of 2004 is also out of sync with regulations implementation the Presidential Decree (Decree) No. 81 of 2006 about National Agency for Placement and Protection of Indonesian Labor (BNP2TKI) particularly in terms of monitoring the protection of Indonesian labor (TKI). Act No. 39 of 2004 is also out of sync with the implementation regulations Presidential Decree No. 81 Year 2006 on National Agency for Placement and Protection of Indonesian Labor (BNP2TKI), especially in terms monitoring of Indonesian Labor protection. Consequently there are overlaps and inconsistencies in monitoring the Indonesian Labor protection. Similarly, between Presidential Decree No. 81 of 2006 With decision of The Minister of Manpower and Transmigration Number 18/MEN/IX/2007 on the implementation of placement and protection indonesian labor who work abroad. The authority of National Institution Placement and Protection Indonesian Labor (BNP2TKI) in institution placement and protection for Indonesian Labor are set out in regulation partially pulled back to the Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration through the Ministry Decree of Manpower and Transmigration No. 22/MEN/XXI/2008, resulting in "a conflict of authority" between the Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration as a regulator with The National Institution Placement and Protection of Indonesian labor (BNP2TKI) as implementing policies on the placement and protection Indonesian Labor. Law no. 39 In 2004 Horizontally the substance is not sync with the Law No. 39 Year 1999 on Human Rights, especially regarding the elaboration the working concept as part of human rights and state responsibility in the protection, compliance and enforcement. The same thing happened to Law No. 32 Year 2004 on Regional Government relating to the protection of Indonesian Labor between the authority of Central and Local Government.
Keywords: Legislation Regulations, The Indonesian Labor.
The Perspectives of Non-Linguistic Transfer in Foreign Language Acquisition
Mu'weih Al Tarawneh
The goal of this study is to investigate the perspectives of non-linguistic (pragmatic) transfer in foreign language acquisition. This study consists of 58 students from the department of English Language and Literature at Mu'tah University. This is a qualitative research. The researcher used a random sampling process. The finding of the research showed that English language and literature students have not developed well the needed level of pragmatic knowledge. This study concluded that teachers of English should be aware of this knowledge and should learn the students more enough about pragmatic to reach a high level. This study recommended that further future research be conducted in the area to overcome problems with non-linguistic transfer in foreign language acquisition.
Clever Christianity
Alexander S. Kholmanskiy
Historical-philosophical analysis of the religion role in noogenesis has been performed. Physiological congeniality of creative and religious actions has been substantiated. Theological priorities of people having various spirituality types have been defined. It has been shown that spiritualization of fundamentals of physics, on the one part, and scientific actualization of the Bible, on the other part, are needed to overcome the ecological and spiritual crisis of humanity.
Keywords: Bible, Spirituality, Creativity, Consumerism, Natural Science, Noochristianity.
Exploring Tactics Applied by Iranian EFL Learners with High and Low Vocabulary Knowledge in Learning Vocabulary
Mahdi Yazdi and Reza Kafipour
Since vocabulary is core element in learning foreign/second languages this study tries to explore the tactics and strategies applied by Iranian EFL learners with high and low vocabulary knowledge in learning vocabulary. Thus, the finding may pave the way for researchers, curriculum designers and instructors to find out effective strategies in learning vocabulary as well as those tactics and strategies which need to be applied more to gain more achievement. To do so, the researcher selected 20 out of 238 EFL learners (10 learners with high vocabulary knowledge and 10 learners with low vocabulary knowledge) from Semnam province based on purposive sampling to participate in this qualitative study. They were asked to record what they really do daily in learning and retaining vocabulary through journal writing. After transcribing the collected data, the results were descriptively analyzed. The results showed that students who had high background vocabulary knowledge applied more vocabulary learning strategies in the process of language learning and consequently vocabulary learning in comparison with those who has low background vocabulary knowledge. Furthermore, memory strategy was found as the most frequently used strategy by both groups while social strategy was found as the least frequently use one. However, some remarkable differences were identified in frequency of strategies applied by two groups. For example, using monolingual dictionaries were remarkably used by students with high vocabulary knowledge while it was among the strategies hardly used by students with low vocabulary knowledge.
Keywords: EFL, Vocabulary, Vocabulary Learning Strategies, Vocabulary Acquisition, Vocabulary Level.
The Effect of the Differences in Educational Levels of the Employees in Turkey on Their Productivity
Orhan Kandemir
One of the methods for measuring productivity is the added value created per employee. In this study, the relationship between the added value created per employee on a regional level in Turkey and the education levels of the employees has been examined via correlation and regression analyses. Analysis results were as expected and it was observed that the productivity increased as the education levels of employees increased. In this regard, in order to decrease the regional development differences in Turkey, it is required to make sure that the employees that will be employed for the first time be better educated as well as making already working employees better qualified by way of on-the-job trainings and distance learning applications.
Keywords: Regional Development Differences, Educated Labour Force, Added Value, Employees Productivity. JEL Classification: E24, I25, O15, O47, R58.
Using Exploratory Factor Analysis to Investigate Inter-Relationships among Serious Crime Variables in South Africa
Ntebogang D. Moroke and Nehemiah Mavetera
South African Police Service (SAPS) is mandated to record and release statistics on what they perceive to be serious crimes in the country. In the financial year 2009/2010, twenty nine such crimes were reported by complainants at 1119 different police stations across South Africa. This crime data is characterised by 29 variables. Due to this high number of variables and the fact that they are measured by different correlation coefficients, it becomes difficult to apply statistical methods such as Discriminant Analysis, Multiple Regression Analysis, Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA), and other related techniques. However, Factor Analysis (FA) can be applied to examine interrelations between these variables and to identify if these observed crime variables can be explained by few unobservable proxies called factors. In this study, four unobservable factors were used to combine the 24 observable variables that were found to be related. The SAPS may use the results of this study when reporting on national crime statistics as well as designing questionnaires that will be used when collecting crime data. The results can also help magistrates in determining appropriate sentences for crimes committed. It is noted that a lot of money, time, and resources may be saved if the results of this study are applied.
Keywords: Factor analysis, Rotation, Communality, South Africa, Correlation matrix, Crime, Scree plot.
The Effect of Dividends on Stock Price Sensitivity – An Empirical Study on Some Selected Listed Companies in Bangladesh
Muhammad Mahbubur Rahman and Mohammad Nazim Uddin
The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of dividends on stock price sensitivity in secondary stock market. The importance of stock price sensitivity has been considered as barometer for measuring the stock market performance. The study has used only secondary data to validate the findings. It also measures the effect of dividends on stock price sensitivity in the Bangladesh stock market using the’ Correlation and Regression Method’ for the period 2004 to 2011 and the sample size is 25 A category Companies. The main reason to consider this certain period and sample size is time and financial barrier of the researcher. The study finds that dividend announcement of the sample companies have a negative and insignificant impact on the stock price sensitivity in Bangladesh. The study seems to carry an enormous academic value since a very few studies have been undertaken in this area. It may be helpful to the listed companies, stock exchanges, security and exchange commission, researchers, and national policy makers, who have been making serious endeavor to protect the interest of stakeholders and to develop the Bangladesh capital market as a whole.
Keywords: Dividends, Stock Price, Sensitivity.
The Business Dispute Resolution Out of Court among Sasak Tribe Residents in Lombok Island
SIdrus Abdullah, SH
This study took place within the entire autonomous region on the Lombok Island, which is in West Lombok regency Mataram city, Central Lombok, and East Lombok District. Focus of this research is to find answers to “how the people on the Lombok island, Sasak tribe resolve their business disputes, the procedures undertaken, and the legal rules than are used”, a series of problems to study. From the result obtained by the findings that show the models out of court element of disputes between fellow citizens Sasak, including debt-related accounts buying and selling cars, buying and selling of precious metals, with reference to the local values (the costumes’, habits, tradisis-traditional religious values) are used as terms of reference the parties dispute to end the disputes. Results showed precede fast, simple, easy and cheap that is based on principles of fairness deliberation, the agreements that were led by religious leaders, community leaders as mediators. In this circuit the parties dispute tends to avoid the courts to resolve disputes with reason “could damage the relationship of brotherhood” (social relations), in addition to the perception that only “those who were disputing only” who took the court mechanism. Within the above framework, this study refers to the theory of “Legal Pluralism” from Griffiths, the theory of “Semi-Autonomous Social Fields” from sally folk Moore, in addition to the theory of the “Living Law” from Erlich. All data obtained were processed according to the rules prevailing methodological qualitative research, and then analyzed to obtain a deep understanding of the important aspects implicit in a series of studies the object of dispute. Evaluation and data analysis take place simultaneously, with the final result of the conclusions, the arguments that give the full picture of the whole process of studies showing the interrelation between the various research findings with the concept of fact-theoretic grip author.
Keywords: Dispute Resolution, Mediation, Local Institution.
Islam and Polygamy: Competing Definitions
Aurangzaib Alamgir, Aziz Ahmed and Khalil Hasni
From the nineteenth century onwards, Islam has largely been denounced for its alleged mistreatment of women. Many Muslim activists have emerged to counter this conception, and they mainly fall into two groups: the feminists and the traditional. The feminist believe that it is necessary to engage in new discourses to bring out the dynamics of social change within the framework of Islam. The traditional, however, reject the mere notion of new discourses and strictly adhere to the classical Islamic tradition as they believe that any divergence would threaten the very social structure of Islam. As such, they have taught women to admit polygamy as being a legitimate Islamic institution. Feminist, for the most part, do not believe that Islam promotes any injustice and mistreatment towards them and therefore they are calling for restrictions on polygamy. This paper therefore engages in a debate between the traditional and feminist approach to polygamy, with particular reference to Malaysia.
Keywords: Islam, Muslim Women, Feminists, Polygamy, Interpretation of Qur'an.
Islam, Muslim Feminism and Women’s Rights in Malaysia
Aurangzaib Alamgir, Aziz Ahmed and Khalil Hasni
Discourses on Muslim women’s rights can be categorized in two; (1) Muslim Feminists who engage in new discourses to bring out the dynamics of social change within the frame work of Islam; (2) Fundamentalists who reject the mere notion of new discourses and strictly adheres to the classical Islamic tradition.This paper therefore explores the perception of University students about Muslim women’s rights in Malaysia and finds out in which category they fall in. Do they support Muslim Feminist discourse or the fundamentalists’ perspective?
Keywords: Islam, Muslim Feminism, Interpretation of Qur’an.
Evaluation of Online Machine Translation Systems
Chi-Hong Leung
With the advance of technologies, people in different corners of the world get connected with the Internet. Web pages are common ways for communication nowadays. To solve the problem of language barrier, machine translation can assist and this is usual free service online. This paper attempts to study two free online machine translation systems, Google and YouDao, translating from English to Chinese and from Chinese to English. This paper is going to evaluate these two online machine translation systems and provide suggestions for further improvement. First, the paper will introduce and compare their translation functions and features, find out their advantages and disadvantages. Second, the paper will research and classify difficulties of machine translation systems, use examples in different aspects to test them and make some explanations. Finally the paper will calculate scores of the two machine translation systems based on evaluation guidelines. It will make some suggestions to them that would be useful to improve the translation quality and reduce the translation time.
Keywords: Online Machine Translation System, Chinese-to-English Translation, English-to-Chinese Translation, Performance Evaluation, Improvement and Suggestion
JEL Classification: O Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth
O3 Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights
O31 Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
Model Policy Design for the Beef Cattle Development in South Sulawesi
Machmud Achmad, Sri Hartoyo, Bustanul Arifin and Muhammad Said Didu
The main objective of this study is to examine the existing condition of the ranchers. It examines factors influencing policies on developing cattle beef and designing integrated planning systems in South Sulawesi. The method for this study includes qualitative and quantitative approaches using survey method to obtain primary data. Data were analyzed and presented in descriptive tables graphs with analytical tools policy. Results were obtained from choices of recommendations, elaborated in the form of strategy and policy implications based on expert opinions (expert judgment), Internal and External Matrices with the SWOT analysis and the QSPM. Result shows that current position for beef cattle in South Sulawesi is in grow and build. By analyzing all the factors from SWOT further, four strategies were developed to determine the beef cattle policy strategy. Using the QSPM, result further suggests that the best strategy is to develop an integrating system between the beef cattle rancher and crop (rice and corn). The strategy also implies that in order to achieve this goal, technology improvement and innovation play important keys, especially technology for the feed processing system.
Keywords: Beef Cattle, IFE EFE matrix, SWOT and QSPM, South Sulawesi.
Lao Popular Songs: Social and Culture Reflection of the New Thinking Period
Pat Kotchapakdee, Souneth Phothisane and Duangchampee Wootthisuk
The research entitle “Lao Popular Songs: Lao Popular Songs: Social and Culture Reflection of the New Thinking Period” was aimed to was aimed 1) to investigate the history of Lao popular songs, 2) to study the current situation of Lao popular songs and 3) to study the social and cultural reflections Lao popular songs in the New Thinking Period. The study employed qualitative research methodology with the population and subjects in the area of Vientiane Prefecture and Luang Prabang. The research instruments included a survey form, an observation form, and an interview form, and a group interview. The data collected was gathered and analyzed by structural and functional theory, cultural diffusion theory, globalization theory, post-modern theory, and ideas of popular culture and presented in descriptive analysis. It was discovered from the study that Lao popular songs was originated because of the influence of western music during the domination of French government in 1893 and was affected by political regime shifts which was divided to 5 periods with its development in accordance with social context as follow: 1. The France Period (1893-1954) was divided to 4 sub-periods namely; 1.1) French Government Period (1893-1940), 1.2) World War II Period (1940-1945, 1.3) Independent Laos Period (1945-1946), and 1.4) Second French Government Period (1946-1954): 2. The Royal Kingdom Period (1954-1975) was divided to 4 sub-periods namely; 2.1) The Beginning Royal Kingdom Period (1954-1964), 2.2) The Royal Kingdom in Special War (1964-1968), 2.3) The Special Increase Royal Kingdom in Special War (1968-1973) and 2.4) The Before-Liberation Royal Kingdom (1973-1975): 3. The Liberation Song (Revolutionary Song) (1975-1986) was divided to 2 sub-periods namely; 3.1) The Beginning Period of Liberation Songs (Revolutionary Songs) (1975-1980), and 3.2) The Period of Before-New-Thinking- Period Liberation Songs (Revolutionary Songs) (1980-1986): 4. The New Thinking Period (1986 – 2002) was divided to 2 sub-periods namely; 4.1) The Beginning New Thinking Period (1986-1999), and 4.2 The Before-Open-Door New Thinking Period (1999-2002): 5. The Open Door Period (2002-present). The crucial development caused by the declaration of the announcement of economic policy as known as “The New Thinking” led to fast development in several aspects of Lao popular song society. However, there was lack of human resources in production. Moreover, the government policy played crucial roles in control, promotion, and development of Lao popular songs. In terms of reflection on society and culture in Lao popular songs in The New Thinking Period, it was found that Lao popular songs were the product of pop culture which was capable of reflecting social history and culture of Laos in each period. Especially, in The New Thinking Period economic factors was valued and the western costume was well accepted by the society. In terms of culture, it was founded that the content of the songs that presented way of life, customs and traditions, and ideology which was the Lao culture still existed under the change of external factors. The factors were connected to context of politics, economic, society, culture and the ways of life of Lao people of each period.
Keywords: Lao Popular Song, Reflection, Lao Society and Culture