European Journal of Social Sciences

 Volume 41 No 2
 January, 2014
The Role of Political Party Identity in Central and Local Government Relations in Albania
Salih Özcan and Diana Shehu
The article analyses local government in Albania, its functions and the interaction of central and local government based upon their political party identity. The main research question of this paper is to assess the degree to which the central government interacts differently with local governments on the basis of political party identity. To answer this question we conducted a study of four communes in centre of Albania, in the district of Tirana. We used data from the Albanian Institute of Statistics to find the unconditional and competitive grants given to the four districts, conducted interviews with the mayors of the communes, and included observations on Albanian government and culture from the European Commission. Our findings are inconclusive. Unconditional grants are awarded in a non-partisan basis, yet communes affiliated with the party in the national government received more competitive grants. Interviews suggest party bias, but also hint that other factors may contribute to the apparent discrimination in awarding grants. We conclude with recommendations on how to strengthen the interaction between local government and central government and how local government could be more independent as well as more productive and efficient.
Keywords: Local government, communes, party bias, development, decentralization, efficiency.
The Impact of Multi-Dimensional Sport Service Quality on Game Attendance Associated with Professional Sports A Case of Major League Baseball Spectator
Kevin K. Byon and Younghwan Choi
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the four-factor sport service quality model on future game attendance associated with Major League Baseball (MLB) spectators. Based on the extensive review of literature, four factors of sport event quality model was developed, which included: (a) ticket services, (b) game amenities, (c) venue services, and (d) venue accessibility. Data (N = 266) were collected from spectators of a MLB team. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were utilized to estimate the measurement model and the hypotheses. The SEM revealed that ticket services, venue services, and venue accessibility were found to have positive effects on future game attendance of MLB. Unexpectedly, the game amenities variable was not found to be a predictor of future game attendance.
Keywords: Service Quality, Spectator, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Structural Equation Modeling.
Leadership Behavior Patterns for Football Coaches in the Northern Region Clubs from the Perspective of the Players
Khaled Zyoud, Hisham Ali Aldmor and Mohamad M.S. Al-Aly
The study aimed to identify football trainers' leadership behavior at northern Jordan district football clubs from players' perceptions. The study used the descriptive (survey) approach as it was suitable to the nature and objectives of the study. Sample of the study consisted of (343) football players. To collect data, a (40) items questionnaire distributing on (5) domains (football trainer behavior: autocratic, social help, inspiring, coaching and democratic. Results of the study indicated that coaching behavior is appreciated by the trainers. It was clear that social appreciation is valued by trainers as the social aspect is important for football players. Results indicated that inspiration behavior reported high level in the minds of trainers. The democratic behavior was not evident among football players from players' perceptions as opposed to the autocratic behavior. No significant differences were found on the individual domains (autocratic, and democratic) and total training behavior due to the football club league, while significant differences were found in the democratic, social help and total leadership behavior due to trainer's experience. The researchers recommended the need for more attention to the inspiring and social help leadership behaviors as they play an important role in the players training and social lives and the adopt the democratic leadership style in and out of the pitch and to avoid the use of autocratic leadership style.
Keywords: Leadership style, Football trainers, Football clubs.
The Impact of Entrepreneurial Spirit on Corporate Entrepreneurship (The Case of Iranian Agricultural Faculties)
Asef Karimi, Mahmood Ahmadpour Daryani and Fatemeh Bagherzadeh Lakani
The purpose of this study is to identify the key dimensions of entrepreneurial spirit and determine how this antecedents influence the corporate entrepreneurship in the Agricultural Colleges in west of Iran. The empirical paper is based on questionnaire survey and statistical analysis. Data obtained from a sample of 153 respondents (According to the Krejcie and Morgan's table) drawn from 5 Agricultural Colleges in Iran (University of Ilam, Kurdistan, Hamedan Avicenna and Kermanshah Razi) were analyzed with the LISREL program. According to the results, tolerance of ambiguity, innovation and creativity, need for achievement, internal control center, need for independence and risk are the most important components of entrepreneurial spirit. Also result indicated that most important components of corporate entrepreneurship are innovation, leadership, exploitation of the new opportunities, strategic renewal and the entrance of the organization to new businesses. Results showed that the entrepreneurial spirit has a positive and significant impact on the development of corporate entrepreneurship in the Agricultural College in West of Iran.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Corporate Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Spirit, Agriculture, SEM.
JEL Classification: L26, L20, N5
Designing a Model for Prioritizing the Nanotechnology Areas, using DEA Approach
Shirin Alsadat Mirarabshahi, Taghi Torabi, Nasrin Ghaderi Rivand and Seyed Mahdi Mirarabshahi
Nanotechnology is considered as one of the most important scientific achievements in country and its main topic is restraining the material or devices with less than one micrometer in size, usually about 1 to 100 nanometers. There are several areas in nanotechnology. Inspecting each area and providing a model for evaluating the performance of nanotechnology areas and prioritizing them are important and essential for some reasons. First, supporting organizations such as the center for nanotechnology can use this model to assess the nanotechnology areas and define standards for measuring the performance of the mentioned areas in accordance with it. Secondly, evaluating performance of nanotechnology areas can help officials, sponsors and financial institutions in identifying successful and unsuccessful areas to use this ranking as a criterion to recognize the functional areas from non-functional areas in the future planning. In this paper, 13 different domains have been identified in nanotechnology. To determine the efficiency of each of them, a number of inputs and outputs are determined. Then each index is calculated in the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model and at the end, the efficiency of each of these areas has been calculated. Nanoparticles and nanocavities have had the highest efficiency compared with other units.
Keywords: Nanotechnology, nanotechnology areas, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA).
Evaluation of Effectiveness of ICDL Electronic Training Courses, Provided by Iranian University Crusade Organization
Shokoufeh Alsadat Mirarabshahi, Seyed Mohsen Mirarabshahi and Davood Hoseinzadeh
Training management is a tool being used by organizations to keep up with competition on meeting customer needs because it helps organizations to be updated continuously. Thus all organizations exploit this tool to ensure their survival. Present research tries to address a specific dimension of training management i.e. ICDL courses, based on Kirkpatrick’s model. Present research was conducted in Iranian University Crusade Organization.
Keywords: Training, Training Management, Training Evaluation Model.
Evaluation of Effectiveness of Knowledge Management Dimensions for Productivity of Loqman Hospital.
Bahram Jadidi, Siamak Samini, Shirin Alsadat Mirarabshahi and Zahra Sabetifar
Knowledge management refers to a tool for keeping up organizations with the competition in terms of meeting customer needs and requirements. Thus every organization exploits this tool to ensure its survival. Present research seeks to identify major dimensions of knowledge management and their relationship with organizational productivity. Since present research was conducted in a hospital, its results are of significant importance because hospitals are service organizations.
Keywords: Knowledge, Knowledge Management Dimensions, Productivity.
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Intermediary Firms in Elimination or Modification of Obstacles to Technology Transfer
Amir Bayat Tork and Somayyeh Abdolhosseini
When customers’ demands and tastes change quickly, diversification of products and their production methods become factors influencing competition and achievement of competitive advantage. The main tools being used in obtaining such an advantage are new technologies being transferred from other industries to the organization. But this technology transfer process is not always an easy practice and some obstacles are found causing problems for this it and in turn slowing down the process of addressing customers’ demands. In present research after identification of obstacles to technology transfer, exploiting intermediary firms specialized in technology transfer are suggested and their effects on elimination or modification of these obstacles are measured using a simple mathematical model.
Keywords: Effective technology transfer, obstacles to technology transfer, intermediary firms.
Impact of Celebrity Endorsement on Consumers Purchase Intention
Mubbsher Munawar Khan and Sundas Islam Chaudhary
The basic objective of this research study is to explore how celebrity endorsement impacts consumers’ purchase intention for a particular product. It explores the relationship of different attributes of celebrity endorsement with the celebrity and then their influence on consumers’ minds in constructing their purchase intention. It is a cause and effect (casual) research study because the researchers are interested in knowing and understanding the effect of certain attributes of celebrity endorsement that will influence the Pakistani consumers’ purchase intention. For this study a 5-point Likert scaled questionnaire is used to gather data from target respondents. Convenience sampling is used in this research study to save cost and time. Data is gathered from three different sectors because ads are widely seen across different sectors of general public. The overall response rate was 91%. Overall the results lead to acceptance of our hypothesis H1. Most of our target respondents were household females who are the keenest watchers of TV in Pakistan. This research study is practically significant for the marketers who are promoting a product through celebrity endorsement. If marketers properly analyze the celebrity endorsements attributes, then these ads will definitely cast an impact on consumer's mind and influence their purchase intention. This study explores in Pakistani context the consumers’ state of mind, how they perceive the celebrities and how their presence in advertisements leave some positive impact on their minds not. The study produced positive results and identifies key un-catered areas.
Keywords: Celebrity endorsement, consumers’ purchase intention, expertise, familiarity,fit match, likeability, similarity, transfer meaning, trustworthiness. JEL Classification: M31, M37
How Much do we Trust: An Experimental Method the Case Study of Iran
Seyed Mehdi Mirhoseini
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the state of trust in Iran as one of the main features of social capital. In order to do so, we have first provided an overall review of the trust state in Iran using the data from World Value Survey (WVS) and Iran’s official data banks (Central bank of Iran, Iran Statistical Center, etc). Then we conducted an adjusted trust game to achieve more accurate results. Both the data from official data banks and WVS and the results from the experiment suggest that the state of trust in Iran is significantly low and is experiencing a downward trend. Finally, we show that the amount returned by the trustees is significantly affected by the personality types they are supposed to return the money to.
Keywords: Social Capital, Trust, Experimental Economics, The Trust Game. JEL Classification: Z1, Z13, Z19
Effects of Anti-Japanese Sentiment on Product Quality Service Quality and Customer Loyalty in Korea
Hyung Seok Lee
Many Japanese product sellers and companies pay particular attention to Koreans’ anti-sentiment toward Japan. The recent statements claimed by Japanese politicians over the dominium of Dokdo have further provoked Koreans’ anti-Japanese sentiment. The dispute over the dominium of Dokdo has strained the bilateral relations between Korea and Japan. In particular, Japanese firms are afraid of the sharp decline in Japanese exports and sales in Korean market. Hence, this study focuses on the effects of Koreans’ anti-Japanese sentiment on product quality, service quality and customer loyalty. Further, it uses the survey data collected from Korean consumers who own a Japanese brand laptop computer/digital camera. The results of the study indicate that Koreans’ anti-Japanese sentiment has a negative impact on customer loyalty. In addition, such anti-Japanese sentiment negatively affects customers’ perceived quality of service. However, anti-Japanese sentiment does not relate to customers’ perceived quality of product.
Keywords: Anti-Japan Sentiment, Product Quality, Service Quality, Customer Loyalty
Effects of Promotion Type and Expiration Date on Perceived Value and Redemption Intention
Hyung Seok Lee and Eun Kyo Choi
Informed consumers pursue monetary or economic benefits by using coupons in various purchase environments, and many firms use coupons as the easiest promotional tool to increase their sales. This study employs an experimental design using the repeated measure ANOVA to assess the effects of promotion type and expiration date on perceived value and redemption intention with respect to coupons and loyalty card points. The results indicate that the participants were more likely to value discount coupons and loyalty card points than stamp coupons. In addition, an increase in expiration dates of coupons and loyalty card points made it more likely for the participants to perceive the value of coupons and loyalty card points and have intention to redeem coupons and loyalty card points. However, there was no significant difference in redemption intentions based on the type of promotion. In addition, promotion type and expiration date had no interaction effects on the perceived value of and redemption intention toward coupons and loyalty card points.
Keywords: Coupon, Loyalty Card, Expiration Date, Redemption Intention
The Performance of Financial Sector in the ESCWA Region
Giseok Nam
The developments in the financial sector in most ESCWA member countries are consistent with theoretical expectations of the financial sector development at different stages of economic development. In general, the financial systems in most ESCWA countries reflect reasonably well those associated with developing countries still at the initial phases of economic development. Among those characteristics are the pervasive government intervention at the financial sector and the consequent financial repression in the form of interest rate ceilings and government-directed credit allocation, the dominance of indirect finance or the banking sector accompanied by the relatively small or virtual non-existence of securities markets, and striking structural deficiencies in the legal and regulatory frameworks.
Keywords: Financial Sector, ESCWA Region, Developing Country.
JEL Classification: G21, G28
Additional Evidence on the Debt use of Korean Banks
Seok Weon Lee
The purpose of this paper is to empirically compare the capital structure decision between national and regional banks in Korean banking industry. We find that Korean national banks appeared to manage their capital structure decision (or debt use) more aggressively than regional banks by maintaining more significantly positive associations between debt ratio and the determinants of bank capital structure such as loan-to-asset ratio, dividend payout ratio, profitability and non-performing loan ratio. In other words, the tendency of the national banks’ to control or decrease bank risk by decreasing debt associated with each of the above explanatory variables is weaker than regional banks. Considering that the national banks are generally larger asset-size banks, and therefore, the soundness and profitability of national banks will have bigger influence on the banking industry and national economy, this result suggests that the bank regulator needs to take a closer monitoring and supervision on the national banks’ capital structure decision.
Keywords: National banks, Regional banks, Capital structure decision, Banking industry, Debt ratio.
The Influence of Tax Fairness Perception and Tax Consciousness on Taxpayer Compliance Behavior: The Case of Turkey
Harun Yeniçeri
Taxpayers’ compliance behavior has been considered a major issue for both tax authorities and researchers around the globe. For that reason, explaining taxpayer compliance behavior’s antecedents is an important issue for developing relationships between taxpayer and tax authorities. The main objective of this research is to examine the influence of tax fairness perception and tax consciousness on tax compliance behavior in Turkey case. A survey questionnaire was administered to a sample of 350 taxpayers who declare their income to the tax administration. Factor analysis and reliability analysis were run before testing the research hypotheses. The impact of tax fairness perception and tax consciousness on taxpayer compliance behavior was assessed by structural equation modeling. The model developed in this research has high reliability and validity. According to the results of statistical analysis, tax fairness perception and tax consciousness were found to have a significant and positive effect on tax compliance behavior of income taxpayers.
Keywords: Tax Fairness Perception, Tax Consciousness, Tax Compliance Behavior, Structural Equation Modeling.
JEL Classification: H26 - Tax Evasion