European Journal of Social Sciences

 Volume 40 No 4
 Dec, 2013
Studying and Prioritizing the Effective Factors on Project Management Performance using PMPA Model Case Study: Petrochemical Industries Development Management Co.
515 - 529
Amir Bayat Tork, Shahin Habibi, Somayyeh Abdolhosseini and Nasrin Ghaderi Rivand
In today's highly competitive world, the traditional methods can no longer carry out the works. In this era organizations are forced to implement the projects in order to maintain their position in this way and continue to improve their operations, but this growth that causes to increase the effectiveness and flexibility of the project works has created its own problems because the organizations have been placed in an environment that increasing complexity and increasing demand for faster, cheaper and better projects are their features. An important question that arises is how to choose the right projects and complete them correctly. In fact how we can finish the projects successfully. Formation of project management standards since mid-1980 can be seen as a turning point in the project knowledge management. These standards are trying to bring more success to the projects. But there is no alive standard without improvement and standards of project management are of no exception. Project management practitioners are constantly trying to provide better standards. Nowadays according to the approach of most organizations to deeper understanding of project management concepts, their trying to use this knowledge as much as possible, promoting the organizational culture level of the project management and the need to provide a way to evaluate the performance of the organizations in terms of performance evaluation and organizational development in the project management, strengths and weaknesses and their growth and development steps are felt more. Because implementing the models of project management performance evaluation requires a good knowledge base, in the research literature we explain it completely. Then in the methodology part, the method of performing research has been proposed and then the results are presented. Such as this: what is the evaluation method using PMPA model and what are the results of evaluating and at the end, the role of each criteria of PMPA model in evaluating the performance of project management was studied and these criteria are ranked according to their impact. At the end, the results of the study and recommendations have been presented. Inspecting the results is performed according to the hypotheses and objectives and strategies are presented as suggestions for improving the performance.
Keywords: Project management, project management performance, project management performance assessment, PMPA.
Information and Knowledge Management Program in Loghman Hakim Medical Centre
Ali Khoshkar, Seyyed Ali Bahreini, Siamak Samini and Saeideh Nateghi Nia
The most important characteristic of 21th century organizations is emphasis on information and knowledge. Today organizations need to acquire, manage and exploit information and knowledge in order to improve their efficiency. In present research after a careful study of key success factors in relation to implementation of knowledge management, primary and secondary factors are identified and their importance and priorities are determined using interviews with academic experts, questionnaires and factor analysis. Statistical population of present research consisted of all academic experts in management field and managers, assistants, supervisors and physicians being in charge of various wards of Tehran city hospitals. Determining importance and priority of key success factors can play a role as a guide for national hospitals in order to prioritize and coordinate knowledge management activities. Also researchers can use this study to enhance their insights on knowledge management activities and create models leading to expansion of knowledge management field.
Formulation of a Participatory Training Program for Personnel of Loqman Hakim Medical Centre
Shokoufeh Alsadat Mirarabshahi, Siamak Samini, Zahra Sabetifar and Nasrin Ghaderi Rivand
Efficiency and effectiveness of an organization is realized by trained and skilled personnel. Today, training plays role as a competitive tool. On the other hand any program aiming to achieve its all desired objectives should be formulated with participation of personnel associated with it. Present research propose a simple model for a training program by considering personnel participation in determining its essential components.
Keywords: Training, Training Plan.
The Implementation of Inclusive Education and Problems Faced By Teachers in Teaching in Inclusive Education Provider Kindergarten
Joppy Liando
The Implementation of Inclusive Education and Problems Faced by Teachers in Teaching in Inclusive Education Provider Kindergarten. This study aims to find out the problems faced by teachers in teaching. The study was conducted on July 2012 to December 2012. The research subjects were teachers teaching in inclusive kindergarten. The design of this study was a case study using a qualitative approach. The data were collected using questionnaires, interviews and documentation. Data analysis was conducted during the data collection and after data collection. The research results showed that in general, teachers who taught in inclusive kindergarten did not have knowledge regarding children with special needs, did not have experience dealing with children with special needs, the lack of teamwork, being unable to create good learning in the classroom, the number of students who were too big, the curriculum used was not appropriate with the learning needs of children with special needs, teachers had never had training and workshops on the development of an inclusive classroom, and being unable to develop learning materials related to inclusive environment. As a result, teachers had difficulty in planning the teaching, implementing, and evaluating students’ learning outcomes.
Keywords: Implementation of inclusive education, problems of teachers in teaching.
Agroecosystem of Coconut-Cattle and Carrying Capacity Analysis in Lolayan Subdistrcit of Bolaang Mongondow Regency
Artise H.S. Salendu and Femi H. Elly
Livestock is a subsector that has roles in supporting the economy in Lolayan Subdistrict. In this area, cattle are developed by utilizing land under coconut trees. The problem is the extent to which coconut plantation potentials can support cattle development in this Subdistrict. The research objective is to analyze the carrying capacity of coconut-cattle agroecosystem. Tonayan and Bakan villages were determined purposively, as the villages having the most cattle. The number of respondents were 52 farmers (32 farmers in Tonayan village and 20 farmers in Bakan village). The data were analyzed using the analysis of Effective Livestock Development Potential and Land Carrying Capacity Index (IDD). Results of this research indicates that the Maximum Potential of Land Resources (PMSL) are 2728.45 Animal Unit (AU). The capacity of cattle population increase based on land resources is 1551.45 AU. The maximum potential based on farmer household heads is 18669 AU and cattle population increase based on farmer household heads of is 17492. The IDD value is 2.03. Based on the research findings, the land under coconut trees in the Lolayan Subdistrict can still be optimized as a source of forage accompanied by the increase in cattle population. Optimization can be conducted by coconut cattle integration approach which is environmentally friendly and sustainable.
Keywords: Agroecosystem, carrying capacity, coconut, cattle.
Management Interactions of Sungai Wain Protected Forest - Balikpapan
Soetoyo, Maryunani, Soemarno, Olly Esry and H. Laoh
Environment is an object of study that keeps on drawing more attention today. Environment refers to the elements of abiotic, biotic, and cultural (ABC) on one side and natural, social, and economic environment on the other side. Management and forest protection are now not just regional (national) problems but they had been world (global) problems. The relationship between communities (human beings) and forests can be seen in the knowledge of the communities in managing forest lands. The aims of this research is to examine the behavior of the society around the area of Sungai Wain Protection Forest and the resulted impacts on the environment as well as the role of the government and the society in the efforts to control and supervise the areas of Sungai Wain Protection Forest and the impact on the economic value of the community. The analysis tools using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with variables Role of the Government (X1), the Role of the Society (X2), Forest Management (Y1), Sustainability (Y2), and Improved Economic Values (Y3). Based on the results of the research on the interactions between the protected forest management and economic activities of the society around Sungai Wain Protected of Balikpapan City, it can be concluded that: the roles of the government and the local society are necessary for the management of Sungai Wain Protected Forest. The role of the government can be seen from their role in to promoting tourist attractions and tourism activities, improving transportation facilities, human resources, infrastructure, supporting facilities, and accommodations.
Keywords: Sungai Wain, Role of Government, Role of Government, Role of Society
The Effect of Anaerobic Training Program on Some Physical and Physiological Variables of General Secondary Certificate Students in Al Mafraq Governorate
Mohamed Mohmoud S. Al Aly
The purpose of the study was to design an aerobic training program convenient for general secondary school students to develop their functional physical activities. A second purpose was to examine the effect of the proposed training program on some physical and functional variables. For study subjects, the authors selected a random sample consisting of 30 secondary certificate students. Students participated in thirteen weeks aerobic training program as results found a significant effect of the proposed training program on study subject. Furthermore, significant improvements in students participating in the proposed training program were found. The study discussed some implication and recommendations.
Keywords: Anaerobic training program, Secondary certificate students.
The Impact of Recitation-Teaching Software on the Academic Achievements of Students Learning Arabic as a Second Language in Saudi Arabia Universities and their Attitudes Towards it
Ibraheem Hasan Mohammad Al rababah
The aim of this study is to find out the effectiveness of one of the recitation teaching softwares in the academic achievement of students learning Arabic as a second language in Saudi Universities and their attitudes towards it. The population of the study consists of 30 Arabic non-native students. In this study, the researcher used 4 tools to confirm its validity and credibility ; they are : the software, the practical test, the theoretical test, and attitude measures. The study resulted in finding that there are statistical significance evidences at significance level ( a=0,05) between the nonnative Arabic students academic achievements in Recitation and Tajweed which shows higher achievements for the sample of students who studied Arabic by using the teaching software comparing with those who studied Arabic by using the traditional teaching ways. The research has also concluded that the students showed improvement, motivation and willingness for using computer softwares in learning Tajweed and Recitation. Finally, the study stated a set of findings and recommendations.(153).
Keywords: Computer software, Recitation and Tajweed, students’ attitudes, Arabic Second Language Students
Globalization and the Growth of Transnational Security Threats in West Africa
Adebayo E. Adeyemi and Mahmoud N. Musa
Despite the many advantages of globalization to mankind, several aspects of the phenomenon have proven to undermine security in view of their roles in exacerbating conflicts at all levels of human endeavour. Focusing in particular on the situation in West Africa, the paper explores the various ways by which the Internet and the proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALWs) contribute to regional and global insecurity. It demonstrates how the combination of this two aspects of globalization amplify the growth and danger of transnational threats as they facilitate the increasing levels of organized crimes, the trafficking of humans, drugs and natural resources, sustain conflicts, exacerbate armed violence and aid terrorism. Given their transnational nature, the paper argues that no single country or region can successfully tackle the devastating consequences of these threats which require the collaboration of the international community.
Keywords: Globalization, Proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALWs), Cybercrimes, Terrorism, Global Security, Internet, Transnational Threats, Jihadist.
Exploring the Historical Development of ESP and its Relation to English Language Teaching Today
Abdel-Rahman Abu-Melhim
This study aims at exploring the historical development of ESP beginning with its use by the United States Armed Forces post Second World War. The study also discusses the various definitions of ESP and how they relate to each other. Major characteristics of ESP, types of ESP and challenges of ESP are also discussed. The study concludes with a thorough discussion of ESP as an approach to English language teaching today and how ESP may be used as an effective method in language pedagogy.
Keywords: ESP development, ESP definitions, ESP characteristics, ESP types, ESP challenges.
Parents' Attitudes towards the Integration of their Physically Disabled Child into Regular Classes
Nedal Mufleh Al Raheem Kawafhh
This study aimed to investigate parents' attitudes towards the integration of their physically disabled children into regular classes, as well as to study the effect of educational level, gender, and the parents’ standard of living on their attitudes. The researcher designed a questionnaire consisted of 20 paragraphs and distributed it on parents of physically disabled students in Irbid Governorate in Jordan for achieving the objective of the study. The study sample consisted of 196 parents for physically disabled students in Irbid Governorate during the academic year 2012/2013 where a questionnaire was distributed on them. Arithmetic means and standard deviations were used for analysis of the study sample results which showed differences with statistical significant in the Parents' Attitudes towards the integration of their child's disability in regular classes due to the educational level of the parents and for the parents of the class orientation besides, the results showed also differences in statistical significant due to the gender in favor of females. The results also confirmed the differences attributable to the level of standard of living in favor of low-income people. The researcher provides some recommendations for other researchers based on the study findings such as: Holding awareness seminars for families to inform them about importance of focusing on physically disabled students as well as importance of their integration into regular classes in addition to, the researcher recommends also further studies are to be conducted on a larger sample to include a wider communities for studying other variables and their impact on the attitudes of parents towards their disabled children.
KeyWords: Physically disabled students and the Integration
The Exchange Rate and Private Investment in Nigeria
Ovikuomagbe Oyedele
This study measures the impact of the exchange rate on the level of private investment in Nigeria from 1980 to 2010 using data from World Development Indicators 2012. It establishes a negative relationship between the exchange rate and private investment and attributes the low level of private investment since 1980 to the devaluation trend which has a negative impact on investment as much of investment trade has been mostly on the importation of capital goods. The study attempts to explain the relationship between private investment and the exchange rate as well as other supporting, important variables such as the real GDP per capita, the inflation rate and the public investment rate. The uncertainty in exchange rate movements, the continuous depreciation of the naira in real terms, the poor level of infrastructural development and the low level of exchange rate related risk protection have not improved the level of domestic as well as foreign private investment flow which happens to dominate total private investment in the country. The poor growth of real GDP per capita (low effective demand level) has only induced a poor private investment growth level. The method of analysis includes a cointegration test and an error correction model.
Keywords: Exchange rate, Private investment, Nigeria, Infrastructure, Development.
JEL Classifications Codes: E2
Analysis of Language Errors in Promotional Circulars and their Possible Causes
Ahmad Muhammed Ali Al-Samawi
The study aimed at scrutinizing and analyzing language errors in promotional circulars and their possible causes to find suitable solutions for such errors. 20 circulars that were issued between October 2011 and March 2012 were randomly selected from four famous hypermarkets in the UAE, namely; Carrefour Al Futtaim, Lulu Hypermarket, Fathima Supermarket and KM Trading center. 179 errors were detected and classified into: structural errors, grammatical & inflectional errors, spelling errors, the use of non-Arabic words, and the use of incorrect words. Errors were evaluated by three raters and Fleiss' Kappa was used to test reliability of agreement which revealed moderate agreement (K= 0.542). Possible causes for such errors were thought to be: lack of knowledge of Arabic vocabulary and grammar, lack of knowledge of Arabic spelling rules, negligence of spelling rules, inaccurate translation and machine translation without revising final versions. The researcher suggested some recommendations that can help eliminating such errors in future promotional circulars.
Keywords: Promotional Circulars, Language Errors, Error Analysis, Causes of Errors
Aspects of Indigenous Community Development in the Context of Regional Autonomy Study: On the Baduy Community in the Village of Kanekes, District of Lebak. Province of Banten
Moch Ali B. Dachlan
Baduy is one of a number of ethnic groups in Indonesia which are still retaining their strong cultural values. They are divided into two groups: the Inner Baduy and the Outer Baduy. The Inner Baduy hallmarked by a white dress with a white headband. The Outer Baduy dressed in black. Number of Baduy people is 11,076 (2009) they live in the Village Baduy area, Sub-District of Leuwidamar, District of Lebak, Banten Province, while some Baduy also live in Cibengkung and Leuwidamar. They are referred to as the Islamic Baduy. New Order government put the Baduy into isolated ethnic groups, something which is contrary to the fact that researchers get relating to the Baduy people. The Baduy occupied three villages namely Cibeo, Cikeusik and Cikertawana (3C). Since 1974, the Baduy people gradually have changed the pattern of trade by barter system, trading system using currency. Since that time the government began to establish various means to empower Baduy people especially in the field of trade. In 2001 in line with the political reforms in Indonesia, where the stronger regional autonomy with the enactment of Law No. 22/2009, Lebak district government has issued Regulation No. 32 of 2001 on the protection of the rights of indigenous Baduy. In line with this, a variety of activities of central and local governments began to be implemented for community empowerment for the Baduy, especially in economics and trade. However, the state of today's Baduy people economy in general are no better than the previous time. Indeed there have been many changes in the Baduy community with the growing of many Baduy traders themselves which turned into “the boss”, even though it is in the domestic level of Baduy village itself, they began to familiar with porter works, daily wage laborers, and construction workers. A gap between merchants (boss) with the poorer consumers, Baduy people are now avid to money to buy daily necessities. This causes traffic and trade between the Baduy and the outers are less balanced, while the Baduy leaders still trying to preserve the cultural values contained in the ten messages of the great-grandfather. Baduy community participation in development activities are no doubt, they contribute positively in various government development program intended for Baduy people, such as terminal construction at Cibuleger, market construction at Cijahe and Cibengkung, health centers construction at Cisimeut,tc. The living principle of the Baduy is still devoted to the government through a ceremony called Seba. The ceremony is a symbol of the Baduy’s submission to the Government. The case has not been balanced with what the government has given to the Baduy. Baduy is now a part of the south Banten people wrote in Max Havelaar’s book (1857) that the South Banten is among the most poor and oppressed. This study aimed to find a variety of things that would be worth to be considered by Indonesian government for special community development strategy in Indonesia such as for the Baduy village in the sub- District of Leuwidamar.
Keywords: Baduy of Banten, indigenous people, community development, regional autonomy.
Importance of Communication and Community Participation in Development Projects; Focus on Role of NGOs in Malaysia
Mumtaz Ali and Maya Khemlani David
The study was conducted on the role of NGOs in Malaysia. Communication and community participation approaches have been discussed from the perspective of academicians, regulatory body officials, social activists, and communication and development professionals. Moreover, ten in-depth face to face interviews were conducted with selected respondents. The study gives guidelines to development professionals who are involved in social services programs. The results are expected to be beneficial for communities, NGOs and field experts. On the basis of these findings further discussion could be generated. The paper also provides an understanding for further studies on community inclusion and engagement strategies to deal with communication and community participation problems in development projects. Furthermore, the study also proposes that how the sustainability of the project is linked with communication and community participation.
Keywords: Community participation, Communication, NGOs, Malaysia and Community development.