European Journal of Social Sciences

 Volume 40 No 2
 Oct, 2013
Turkey and the European Union Vis-ŕ-Vis the Syrian Question: Parallelism with Limits
Armagan Gözkaman
Syria is in a deep turmoil since March 2011. Turkey, one of the countries that are influenced the most by the situation in Syria, confronted the conflict by siding herself with her Western allies. In this study, her position is explored with that of the European Union in order to carry out the similarities of views and actions while referring to the divergences as well. With this purpose, the reaction of Ankara and Brussels against the current regime in Syria, their support to the opposition movement, their efforts to draw the conflict to a close, their humanitarian actions and their worries concerning the possible repercussions of the conflict will be discussed. Whereas the parallelism is easy to observe in political domain, operational and financial preferences of both actors do not necessarily overlap.
Hedonic Shopping Motivations of Young People: A Study on Demographic Characteristics and Shopping Habits
Sevilay Uslu Divanoglu and Hülya Bakirtas
The purpose of this study is to examine effects on hedonic shopping motivation of demographic factors such as gender, household income and shopping habits such as spending level per month, shopping time, people going shopping together, shopping frequency. The data was collected from 406 students in classroom settings at Aksaray University in the Turkey. First, to determine sub-construct of hedonic shopping motivation, the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted and then Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was carried out in the study. Results show that are statistically significance difference in between female and male regarding hedonic shopping motivation. The results extend the literature on shopping motivation and also can help developing marketing strategy of retailers. The study concludes with a discussion of limitations, recommendation for future research and managerial implication.
Keywords: Hedonic shopping value, utilitarian shopping value, demographic characteristics of consumer.
JEL Cassification Codes:
M30, M31
The Conceptual Frame Work: The Influence of Organizational Commitment to Job Performance in the Customer Loyalty Perspective of the Hair Dressing Business in Thailand
Khahan Na-Nan
This literature review aims to study the following objectives: To investigate the level of employee commitment, customer satisfaction, service quality, and loyalty of its customers. To determine the relationship between employee commitment, customer satisfaction, service quality, and the loyalty of the customers. To create employee commitment, customer satisfaction, service quality and loyalty of customers, in the hairdressing business of Thailand. The high performance of the hair dressing business is based widely on customer loyalty, organizational commitment, is the one factor that leads employees to deliver high service performance to their customers. The service performance can produce quality of service, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty. The research is a combination between quantitative research and qualitative research. For the data collection of qualitative study, an in-depth interview was done with hairdresser gurus, marketers, and customers. The study of quantitative research, surveyed 200 hairdressers to answer organizational commitment and 400 customers who use the service to answer the service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty. The data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Mixed method research process is created the loyalty model frame work of the study.
Keywords: Organizational commitment, service quality, customer satisfaction, loyalty
The Information Commitments Toward Online Financial Information Among Taiwanese Adults
Van-Hai Hoang
This paper is to utilize the Information Commitment Survey (ICS) that proposed by Wu and Tsai (2004) for investigation of participant’s standard of judging online financial information and their search strategies on the Web. The sample included 192 participants more than 24 years old in Taiwan. The results indicated that participants in this study held advanced information commitments than less sophisticated information commitments when they sought financial information online. The results revealed that searching behavior and searching strategies of participants in this study were affected by gender; namely, the female participants often more used ‘Multiple sources’ standard for accuracy and ‘Elaboration’ searching strategies than male participants. Moreover, participants with more Internet experiences tended to use ‘Authority’ standard for accuracy information on the Web.
Keywords: Information commitments, online financial information, Taiwan.
An Analysis of Monetary Shocks for the Turkish Economy: Time Series Evidence
Levent Korap and Deniz Kozanoglu
In this paper, a monetary model for the Turkish economy is tried to be tested. For this purpose, first, the stationary linkages between the data have been investigated and a multivariate cointegrating model inclusive of two long run relationships, one for a nominal money demand model and the other consisting of a relationship between two interest rates considered, is constructed in turn yielding inferences derived from a structural vector error correction modeling approach. The results reveal that there exists evidence of a liquidity effect - a negative relationship between a measure of money and an interest rate - and also that the non-existence of a price puzzle - a rise in the aggregate price level in response to a contractionary innovation to monetary policy - cannot be rejected by the Turkish data.
Keywords: Monetary Policy Shocks, Money Demand, Turkish Economy
The State of Europe’s Fertility: Causes, Consequences & Future Policies
Ajay Aggarwal, Arnie Purushotham and Richard Sullivan
Sub replacement fertility levels have persisted across Europe since the 1980s. This has resulted in a demographic transformation within Europe characterised by population ageing, a decline in population growth, and a subsequent rise in old age dependency ratios. European governments are increasingly concerned about their country’s prospects for future economic growth, as well as the burgeoning effect on social and health care costs, in the context of a reduced tax base. This has led to several governments adopting pronatalist policies. This article analyses the relevant theories to date to explain the conceptual basis for fertility decline and the significant variation that exists across European regions. It appraises current policies designed to reverse low fertility rates. In Northern Europe, policies which have encouraged female labour participation, gender equity, and provided benefits to reduce the opportunity cost of children have had a partial effect, but overall the evidence indicates that sustained reversal of low fertility rates throughout Europe is unfeasible as many policies are likely to be based on a misunderstanding of the aetiology of this decline. The challenge for Europe is to re-engineer its economic paradigm to embrace this demographic transition rather than continue to try and reverse it.
Keywords: Fertility decline, Europe, policy, population ageing.
Psychosocial Predictors of Road Rage Among Nigerian Commercial Drivers
Philip C. Mefoh, Leonard I. Ugwu, Lawrence E. Ugwu and Laraba B. Samuel
This study examined whether personality and some demographic variables would predict road rage assessed by the Driving Anger Scale (DAS). The sample comprised 328 Igbo-speaking male commercial drivers in Nsukka, Nigeria. The drivers were incidentally selected from motor parks and some other designated parts of Nsukka town. The study employed a correlational design. Results showed that personality traits (extraversion and openness), and some demographic variables (marital status and driving experience) predicted road rage. The findings were discussed in relation to their relevance in reducing road rage (which often culminates to road accidents) on Nigerian roads. The study concluded that efforts at prevention, reduction and elimination of road rage must involve public education for the drivers, and instituting effective traffic regulation that are directed towards driving efficiency and safety on the roads.
Keywords: Aggressive driving, Driving Anger Scale, Personality, Road accident, Road rage.
Do Attribution Styles Moderate Influences of Safety Practices on Artisans’ Accident Proneness?
Leonard I. Ugwu and Lawrence E. Ugwu
The study tested the hypothesis that attribution styles moderate the relationships between safety practices and accident proneness among a sample of Nigerian artisans. Three instruments were used for data collection for the study. They are: the adapted 10-item safety practices and knowledge scale (SPKS) developed by Ugwu and Ugwu (2006), the adapted 10-item Accident Proneness developed by Van As (2001), and the 20-item adapted Attribution style Scale by Anderson (1999). Results showed that locus, globality, and stability dimensions of attribution style predicted accident proneness, while only locus was a significant moderator of safety practices- accident proneness relations. Controllability dimension of attribution style was neither a predictor of accident proneness nor a moderator of safety practices-accident proneness linkage
Keywords: Safety practices, attribution style and accident proneness.
Modeling of Customer Non-Financial Valuation: Empirical Study on Loyalty Reward Program
Enny Kristiani, Ujang Sumarwan, Lilik Noor Yulianti and Asep Saefuddin
The goal of relational program is to retain customers who are profitable to the organization. Reward point is a form of customer loyalty widely used by many industries, including airline industry. Airline loyalty program, notorious as Frequent Flyer Program (FFP), is the most sophisticated marketing strategic used by airline industries nowadays to maximize their profit and to satisfy their loyal customers. However most airlines have very little understanding of their FFP members yet have a little knowledge about their most valuable customers. Most airlines have inaccurately determined their customer values by only considering business worth of nominal profit generated by FFP members. The value of customers beyond purchasing behavior has not been commonly captured yet. This non-financial value serves as a driver in retaining customers, hence becomes one of crucial factors in preserving the profitability of the organization. For this reason, this paper is the beginning of a study that aims to determine the customer’ non-financial valuations to the organization as well as develop a model of the non-financial values. The relationships between relational benefit, relationship quality, and relationship marketing outcomes will be analyzed in this study. The effect of loyalty reward on the non-financial worth of FFP members to the airline is explored. Scope of loyalty reward program to be studied is a non-paid and accumulated reward program in the context of FFP offered by airline in Indonesia.
Keywords: Frequent Flyer Program, Loyalty, Relationship Benefit, Non-Financial Valuation
Sustainability of Persian Gardens: Cognition of Sustainable Features and Elements of Persian Gardens
Shahab Alidoost, Mojtaba Ansari and Mohammad Reza Bemanian
The sustainable architecture that progress to a matter, for the purpose to be allowed to get to its objectives and goals, supposes essential the design off any building with the slightest undesirable effect on environment as well as design coherent with nature. By exploring the traditional Iranian architecture, it is discovered that Iranian architectural features adapt to the principles of sustainable architecture; and can attain sustainability in contemporary architecture by being celebrated by definite traits of traditional Iranian one. This paper focuses on the sustainable outcomes brought about by climatic constituents in Iranian traditional architecture in Hot-Arid areas. In an enormous country like Iran, with diverse climatic sector, traditional builders have displayed sequences of rational solutions human comfort. The goal of this research is to reveal traditional architecture in Hot-Arid climate of Iran as a model of sustainable architecture. Traditional architecture of Iran is recognized sustainable for having sustainable characteristics. It is able to answer to environmental problems from a long period. Its characteristics are derived from climatic features as well as local construction materials of Hot-Arid areas. Iranian’s Hot-Arid regions architecture holds frequent exceptional characteristics which understand visual requirements and ecological capacity. With no doubt, this type of architecture not only utilizes the natural resources but also boost its spirit. Consequently its techniques realize many newest ideas in sustainable architecture. Consequence of this paper; demonstrate that bearing in mind the experience in traditional architecture of hot-aired areas, it is probable to generate an environmental and sustainable architecture.
Keywords: Sustainable architecture, Iranian traditional architecture, Hot-Arid region, Environmental architecture, Energy.
Perception of Educational Experts of Challenges Imposed by the Change in Knowledge
Mohammad Saleem Al-Zboon, Rabaa Abdullah and Abdeslam Fahad Al Awamrah
The study aimed to acknowledge the challenges imposed by the change in knowledge and how to face these challenges imposed by the change in knowledge, where as the descriptive analytical method developmental was used which is concerned in collecting data , analyzing and interpreting them. In addition to the statistical analysis of the variables and its connections, and analyzing the interviews by using the frequencies and percentages, explaining the results and their connection with the reality. Whereas the study society was formed of the teaching assemblies members in all the Jordanian Universities in addition to all the educational supervisors in the Kingdom. Thus the study sample was formed of (452(supervisors, researcher and experts from the educational assembly members at Jordan University. Where several of researchers and experts were chosen for the field interview newspaper whose number have reached (80) according to the stratifies cluster method. Thus the results have revealed that there is an agreement held between the experts revealing that the economical, globalization challenges on addition to the social, cultural, technological. Educational and political challenges which are the most important challenges imposed by the change in knowledge. According to the results of this study, the researcher had presented several recommendations he hope it will benefit the founders of educational policies and curricula at the Jordanian Universities in order to acknowledge these parties with the challenges facing the knowledge and how to face these challenges.
KeyWords: Challenges, knowledge change in knowledge
The Influence of Patriarchical Culture on Women Leadership in North Sulawesi Indonesia
Christiani Romaito Tarigan
Indonesia has the specification of different culture with different ethnic cultures, especially in Sulawesi that becomes interesting aspect of the cultural treasures of the archipelago. So far, the various aspects of culture in Sulawesi contributed to the concept of leadership as well as women's leadership. The outstanding aspect is the community aspect of social support, cultural support, and the impact on political support. The third aspect is a dominant factor in the leadership of women. In that regard, this study aims to examine whether the factors that shape or determine the impact of women's leadership as a cultural patriarchy in North Sulawesi. From the analysis it shows that social support, cultural and political influence on women's leadership as head of the village. Social support is a major factor that make women leaders in North Sulawesi, followed by cultural support, and the last is political support.
Keywords: Women's leadership, social support, cultural support, and political support.
The Challenge of Poverty in the Rural Areas in Nigeria: Implications for National Development
Anthony Abayomi Adebayo
The greater population of any developing country like Nigeria resides in the rural areas. This population are predominantly agrarian and constitute the food basket of the nation. However, these farmers have largely remained poor and have little or no access to government programme of poverty alleviation. This paper examines the lives of the rural farmers and their neglect by successive governments in Nigeria and the implications for national development. The study revealed that development strategies for a country whose rural population are mainly farmers cannot be achieved without a sustained growth in rural income and improved standard of living primarily from agriculture; to stem rural-urban migration, unemployment, criminality as well as fostering food security and increased agricultural contribution to the Gross National Product (GDP) of the nation. The study also proffers solutions to the problem of acute poverty in the rural areas in order to engender sustainable national development.
Keywords: Farmers, Rural Areas, Sustainable National Development, Developing Country, Implications.
Inequality and Gender Education in America, 1990 – 2010
José César Lenin Navarro Chávez, Antonio Favila Tello and América Ivonne Zamora Torres
Today more than ever education is playing a major role in the agenda of many countries. This study addresses two research questions: 1. Which American economies are suffering inequality in terms of education? 2. Does gender continues being part of the inequality in education? The Gini coefficient is employed in this paper in order to answer those questions. The measurement was performed in 24 countries in the Americas with statistical data for the population 25 years and older to tertiary education for both the general population and for each gender. The results suggest a wide gap of inequality between the developed nations of North America and the nations of Latin America and the Caribbean, emphasizing the progress of countries such as Barbados, Cuba, Argentina and Uruguay. Regarding the gender, the results suggest a decreasing influence of this aspect in educational inequality, except for the case of Haiti, a nation behind where the education gap between men and women increased during the study period.
Keywords: Education, Gini coefficient, Inequality and Gender.
Investment Opportunities in Health: Feasibility of Building an American Private Hospital in Jordan
Ibrahim Alabbadi, Azmi Mahafza, Mousa A. Al-Abbadi and Amir Bakir
Jordan has one of the most modern health care infrastructures in the Middle East with an encouraging investment climate, thus a potential country to offer high quality health services at reasonable prices at a time in which medical care is becoming very costly in North America, Europe and the Middle East.The aim of this study was to investigate the value of health of establishing a high standard American private hospital as an investment opportunity in Jordan. This feasibility study cost estimates that are related to the project for 400 beds hospital consists of four components: market study, technical study,financial study and risk analysis. Investment, running and personnel costs in addition to estimated revenues and cash flows were calculated. The viability of the project was assessed by two indicators, net present value (NPV) at a chosen discount rate which equals the opportunity cost of capital, normally taken as 10%, and the internal rate of return (IRR). Results showed a positive NPV (and huge) indicating that the project is viable. However, the IRR shows the average annual profitability ratio of 172%. It was concluded that his opportunity will add value in health for Jordan as an investment priority country. Depending on the operation ratio,the project may pay back its capital in the first year or in three years maximum.
Keywords: Feasibility, private hospital, investment in health, Jordan