European Journal of Social Sciences

 Volume 39 No 4
 Sep, 2013
Psychological Stress Levels among Autistic Children's Families in A Jordanian Sample
Sameer Abdelkarim Ahmad Al-Rimawi and Ahmad Abdelhalim Arabiat
The study aimed to identify the psychological stress levels among autistic children's families in light of the relation with the child (father, mother), gender, and severity of the child's disability variables.T he sample of the study consisted of (163) parents (fathers and mothers) of autistic children (76 fathers and 87 mothers) whom were intentionally selected from centers for autistic children in Amman city in 2010/2011. Psychological stress tool was applied on the families of autistic children after checking for its reliability and validity which indicated its appropriateness for the purposes of this study The study concluded with a group of results among them: - Mean of the total estimations of the sample members (families of autistic children) on psychological stress tool was (3.53) with a standard deviation of (0.55), with a medium estimation degree. - Psychological stress level that related to characteristics of autistic children and family and social aspects dimensions among autistic children's mothers was greater than among fathers, while psychological stress level related to personal and psychological aspect was equal among both fathers and mothers of autistic children. - There were no significant statistical differences at the value (a= 0.05) between the two means for the participants' estimations on each dimension of the tool and on the tool as whole which related to psychological stress that is attributed to the variable of gender. - There were significant statistical differences between the means of the participants' estimations on the whole dimensions of psychological stress except for the dimension of psychological stress that related to support and assistance services in favor of the sever disability.
The Evolution of Americanisms into English as a Foreign Language Teaching as Current Trends at Higher Education Level: Classroom Discourse
Mohammad Abedltif Al Btoush
The goal of this research is to investigate the evolution of Americanisms into English as a foreign language teaching as a current trends at higher education level in Jordan mainly universities. This is a quantitative research included 15 EFL teachers at Mu'tah University in Jordan. The researcher used a questionnaire survey to elicit data about the opinions of EFL teachers with regard to the variety of English (American or British) they use as a medium of instruction in classroom. The findings of this research showed that the selection of the American English for teaching EFL is associated with the teachers academic background, preferences, modern and youthful. Also, the results revealed that the use of British English was not common amongst these teachers for being classic, too formal and stereotyped. This study recommends that further future research be conducted to investigate deeply issues related to this linguistic phenomenon.
Keywords: Americanisms, EFL, Language teaching.
Pragmatics-Based English/Arabic Translation Test
El-Sayed Dadour and Ayman El-Esery
The present English/Arabic translation test is based on major pragmatic concepts of testing translation. The test employs a letter system of grading. These letter grades are converted into a numerical value by the help of a table prepared by the authors of test for assessing translation skills. The test consists of three parts: part one deals with equivalence at word level, part two is concerned with equivalence above word level (collocations, idioms and fixed expressions) and part three deals with textual equivalence (cohesion and coherence). The three parts contained 20 items; every test item assesses five translation skills (comprehension/meaning, morpho-syntactic, writing style/register, collocation and cohesion/coherence). The test is intended to help teachers of translation to assess under-graduate as well as graduate Prospective EFL teachers’ translation skills.
Keywords: Testing, translation, pragmatic concepts, equivalence, word level, textual equivalence.
Interaction Effects of Perceived Leadership Style and Employees’ Emotional Intelligence on Work Behavior
Ke Guek Nee, Arifin Hj Zainal and Assoc Prof Fatimah Omar
This study examines transformational and transactional leadership styles and how each style affects the following employee work behaviors: job satisfaction, job stress, job performance, and turnover intention. It also determines how each leadership style moderates the relationship between emotional intelligence and the four employee behaviors. We administered a set of questionnaires: the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire measures managers’ perceived leadership styles, the BarOn- i measures emotional intelligence, the Occupational Stress Inventory measures work stress, and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire measures job satisfaction. We administered the Performance Inventory to measure performance and the Propensity to Leave Index to measure turnover intention. A total of 305 subjects from non- manufacturing companies participated in this study. The results of a two-way ANOVA revealed the significant interaction effects of leadership styles and emotional intelligence on job satisfaction and work stress, but not significant effects on job performance and turnover intention.
Keywords: Leadership, Emotional Intelligence, Work Stress, Job Satisfaction, Turnover Intention.
Impacts of Hydropower Dams on Downstream Rural Communities in the Lower Niger Basin of Central, Nigeria
Bolaji Fatai Sule, Abdullateef USMAN and Paul Ifatokun IFABIYI
The impacts of dams on downstream communities have been underscored. The Kede and Patigi-Lafiagi communities which is located immediately downstream of 3 Nigerian hydro dams have in the past 40 years subjected to series of ecological problems due to dam construction. Prior to dam construction, the community understood the rhythm of the flow, they could predict flood year, they had fishes, rice and sugarcane in abundance. Besides it was possible to navigate from Patigi/Muregi to Yola. This study therefore will attempt to examine the impact of dams on the communities of lower Niger basin. Altogether, 250 questionnaires were administered in the community; altogether, 37 variables were generated. These variables are presumed to have the problem of multicollinearity; hence, factor analytical was used to reduce these variables to 10 orthogonal components which had 84.4% explanation. The multiple regression and the stepwise regression methods were used established relationships with dam impacts. The result of the multiple regression showed that these 10 factors (residential status, permanent project side effects, poor infrastructures, married status, electricity, attraction of industries, zero benefit, employment seasonality, irrigation and education) offered 81.1%. The result of the stepwise regression on the other hand showed that electricity and permanent project side effect account for 79.0 % of the explanation. The study concludes that the dams have impacted negatively on the people. It is recommended that an urgent intervention is necessary to alleviate the problems in the study area.
Keywords: Environmental Impacts, Dams, Downstream, Multicollinearity, Electricity, Permanent Effects.
Development of Admission Standards for Social Sciences at Palestinian Universities
Mahmoud A Abu Samra
The main purpose of this study was to ultimately attract more university students to the social science departments at Palestinian Universities through the adaptation of admission policies that enable students to accept the demands for this field for the benefit of the Palestinian society. In order to achieve the goals of the study, the researcher utilized three tools: literature review, an interview, and questionnaire distributed at Palestinian universities. The results of the study revealed that the admission criteria for the Social Sciences (SS) Programs in the Palestinian universities need a holistic review and development. It is no longer acceptable to the Palestinian universities themselves; this development should enhance improving teaching-learning inputs, and therefore the outputs of the graduated students so as to cope with the demands of community development. The study included a set of admission standards that Palestinian universities should adopt to achieve the educational goals and community aspiration. The study also points to the relative weights of each of the standard mentioned by the respondents.
A Cost Calculation Method Based On Theory of Constraints: Throughput Accounting
Metin Yilmaz
The theory of constraints suggests all constraints of an organization determine the profitability, and therefore, performance of the organization. The purpose in the theory of constraints is to continuously eliminate these constraints and focus on continuously improving the performance of the organization. The theory of constraints employs throughput accounting as a cost calculation method. This method takes into account only the direct raw materials and supplies costs, but does not pay respect to labor costs and overheads. By ensuring the cost information is quickly and correctly accessible, the throughput accounting makes important contributions to the management. This study makes comparisons between the throughput accounting method and the full and variable costing methods from the traditional accounting methods with specific emphasis on pricing based on the throughput accounting.
Keywords: Throughput Accounting, Theory of Constraints, Throughput Pricing.
JEL Classification Codes: M40, M41, P42.
The Role of Political Risks in the Change of Foreign Investment Structure
Dina Tsytsulina
The purpose of this article is to analyze the political risks influence on the structure of foreign investments. Investment plays an important role in the capital formation, economic development and country welfare respectively. Concerning the structure of foreign investments two forms of the transfer of the foreign capital are considered in this paper: debt financing and foreign direct investments (FDI). Debt financing and FDI provide various rights to a foreign investor and, thus, are exposed to various political risks. The political risk includes not only the risk of the government actions that will affect the ability of firms to generate the return on its foreign investments, but also other forms of political and economic risks which influence the profitability of foreign investments. In order to reach the aim of the research I use different econometric methods: panel data analysis and event study. The analysis reveals the inverse relationship between the level of political risks and the volume of both types of foreign investments. Moreover I find that foreign direct investments are more sensitive to the change of political situation in a host country than debt financing.
Keywords: FDI, debt financing, political risk, panel analysis, event study.
Determining Biology Student Teachers”Cognitive Structures about "Germination"
Hakan Kurt, Gülay Ekici, Bastürk Kaya and Murat Aktas
The current study aims to determine biology student teachers’ cognitive structure on the concept of germination. Qualitative research method was applied in this study. The data were collected from 44 biology student teachers. A free word association test was used as a data collection instrument. The data collected were subject to content analysis. Analyzing the biology student teachers’ responses to the concept of germination on the free word association test, these responses were coded and divided into categories. Based on the categories, frequency and percentages were provided. The data collected through the study were divided into 6 categories, which were stated as follows: ecological demands, plant form and parts, seed and germination characteristics, fertilization in plants, germination metabolism, and the plant growth stages. When the words provided as answers by the biology student teachers to the concept of germination were analyzed, it was noticed that they had more word connections with ecological demands compared with the characteristics and metabolism of germination. Moreover, it was determined that they had some misconceptions about germination.
Keywords: Germination, Free Word Association Test, Misconception, Cognitive Structure.
Relationship between Technology Based Instruction and Learning Effectiveness: Exploring Rural Perspectives
Iqbal Ahmad, Hamdan Said, Itbar Khan, Asghar Ali, Fayaz Ali Shah and Jawad Hussain
Technology has conquered every sphere of life in the present day including education. The main purpose of study was to investigate the effects of technology based instruction on learning effectiveness and its two dimensions such as classroom participation and effective communication skills. Based on correlation design, the study surveyed perceptions of 150 teachers from 30 rural schools, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. As a part of education reform, schools in some rural areas of KPK have been provided with computers to assist teachers and students in teaching and learning. The teachers were selected randomly from the overall population of the schools. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire. The results of the study found a highly positive correlation between technology based instruction and learning effectiveness. Implications for future study are also discussed.
Keywords: Technology based instruction, Classroom participation, Effective communication.
Studying the Relationship between Observing and Experiencing Parental Violence in Childhood and their Domestic Violence toward Children
Mahmoud Yaghoubi Doust, Halimeh Enayat and Behzad Hakiminya
This survey has been mainly conducted to study the relationship between observing and experiencing parental violence in childhood and their domestic violence toward children in the city of Ahwaz. This research has been carried out through traversal method and by the use of a questionnaire at random in the city of Ahwaz. The population was the entire male and female high-school students with their parents, and the sample volume was 384 people, having been selected through the multistage cluster sampling method and calculated by the use of Cochrane’s formula. To collect data, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the questionnaire of observing and experienced parental violence in childhood were used. Statistical indicators of the mean, standard deviation, Pearson correlation, and regression analysis have been used to analyze data. The results had indicated that there was a positive, meaningful correlation between the variables of observation and experience of mental-physical violence of parents in childhood and their domestic violence toward their children. Also, there was a negative, meaningful between observation and experience of parental violence in childhood and the dimensions of familial violence (physical, sexual, emotional and physical neglect) toward children. Generally, this matter requires more attention of officials and families in order to prevent, control, and reduce the negative dimensions of domestic violence in families and society.
Keywords: Familial violence, observation and experience of parental violence in childhood, parents
The Nexus of Government Expenditure and National Income in South Africa
Ntebogang D. Moroke, Thato M. Legwale, Nehemiah Mavetera and Johannes T. Tsoku
In public sector economics, the debate on the long run tendency for public expenditure to grow relative to some national income aggregate such as GDP has been ongoing for a very long time. It is noted that a change in public expenditure growth can be used to predict changes in national income growth or vice versa. Theoretically, Wagner’s law (1883) can be used to investigate this causal relationship between government expenditure and national income. Using South African time series data spanning 2000/January-2012/December, this study investigated the existence of this relationship. Two stationarity tests provided enough evidence to conclude that the series do not have unit root. However, the Johansen conitegration test revealed that a long-run relationship between the variables exists. A unidirectional causality running from government expenditure to national income has been detected from the data, hence confirming Wagner’s law. Researchers are encouraged to study the nexus between individual indicators of government expenditure and national income and examine which of them is responsible for the short-run relationship.
Keywords: National Income, government expenditure, causal-cointegration relationship, stationarity, South Africa.
Gender: Word’s History
Maysoon Wael ALAtoom and Abeer Bashier Dababneh
We found it appropriate to tackle the concept of gender in this paper for its usefulness in shedding light on woman’s reality and status in the world in general as well as in the Arab societies in particular. In order to dismantle, comprehend and explore this concept, we deemed it proper to direct this research in three main directions. First, we sought to track the history of this concept, the whereabouts of its inception as well as the range of its influence. Second, we highlighted the significance and content of this concept. Third, we explored its boundaries and the scientific and methodological issues that may arise from tackling the gender issue. Research showed that this concept emerged in countries that witnessed enormous political, industrial, scientific and cultural revolutions since the end of the eighteenth century. This had gradually led to the achievement of a comprehensive development that helped those societies construct the individual and create the state of law and institutions, as well as establish democracy and citizenship. The gender concept was not a result of the political development only, but also the academic momentum and a product of the divergence between the sociological and anthropological fields in the American, Canadian, and European universities, in addition to the feminist movements and voices rebellious against domination. Gender, then, is a concept that encompasses an integrated research project represented in the establishment of what is called woman’s anthropology, or an integrated science that is known as the gender science.
Keywords: Gender - Sex – Nature – Culture – The Body as a social structure – The Sexual division of labor, Culture and authority.
The Role of Locus of Control in High School Students’ Depression
Seyed Mohammad Kalantarkousheh, Fayaz Alinezhadi, Ahmad UsefyNezhad and Saeed Taherian
Background: The main objective of the present research was to discuss the relationship between locus of control and the rate of depression among high school students who resided in Qazvin, Iran. Materials and Methods: Random cluster sampling method was to select 300 students from the Western RoodbarAlmot region, 150 of whom were females and the remainder were males. Locus of control was evaluated by Rotter’s Locus of Control Questionnaire. Students' depression was evaluated by Bech‘s depression questionnaire. Data analyses were performed by using SPSS software through calculating Pierson‘s correlation coefficient and the independent t-test. Results: Results showed a correlation between external locus of control and depression. There appeared to be a higher relationship between females’ internal locus of control and depression, which was not seen for males. This relation was statistically significant. Regression results showed that locus of control might predict the rate of depression. Conclusion: Females' locus of control and their rate of depression showed the highest percent of prediction. It was suggested that additional studies consider this issue in different educational grades, at the national and regional levels.
Keywords: Depression, Locus of control, Students.
The Reality of Measurement Procedures and Diagnosis of Learning Disabilities in Resources Rooms in Irbid 2nd Directorate of Education
Randa Mousa Al Momani, Mai Mohammad Al Raggad, Sameer Abdel Karim Al Remawi and Lubna A.A. Inshasi
The field of learning disabilities became the focus of attention to many individuals and institutions, where learning disabilities considered one of the special education categories or non-ordinary. But it is in fact considered most of these categories in number, which reflects the poor quality of the diagnostic methods used, where many people away by its nature while it should look at through it, and they look as it's something else. So the result become we find that we are in front of a class of individuals do not really suffer from learning difficulties. learning difficulties has been exposed in fact to much debate among many specialists in order to determine the nature of the subject to be exact in an attempt to avoid confused with other concepts. This has led the debate to determine the nature of the learning difficulties to a large mixing in order to determine the best ways to teach those students. At the present time, the main reason for learning difficulties lies on the imbalances, which affects the nervous system. And thus lead to an imbalance in the functions of the brain, the reason being internally rather than externally, where there are no external reasons for learning difficulties. Therefore, this fact is often used in fact as a test to distinguish between learning difficulties and academic delay. (Al- qabali,2004). In this context, we find that there are three different terms overlapped and intertwined. So this intertwined with our knowledge, and complicated. And these terms includes three key terms are as follows: learning difficulties / academic delay / slow learning.(Hallahan,2005).