European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 55 No 1
May, 2017
International efforts on Violence against Women
Zaid Ali Zaid
The violence against women is rooted in historical and structural inequality in power relations between women and men, and persists in every country in the world as a pervasive violation of the enjoyment of human rights. Gender-based violence is a form of discrimination that seriously violates and impairs or nullifies the enjoyment by women of all human rights and fundamental freedoms. Violence against women is characterized by the use and abuse of power and control in public and private spheres, and is intrinsically linked with gender stereotypes that underlie and perpetuate such violence, as well as other factors that can increase women’s vulnerability to such violence.
At the beginning of the twenty-first century with all human achievements of the tremendous progress in all fields of life and aspects, with what experienced people today in the era of modernity and globalization, but this progress was unable to give the mankind peace and compassion, love and intimacy. Since there are still a lot of aspects of barbarism and ignorance of the ruling in ancient times and stuck rooted in the human psyche.
Directionality Assessment in Arabic-Spanish Simultaneous Interpreting: the Use of Spanish
Bachir Mahyub Rayaa
Arabic-Spanish interpreting, in all its modalities, has been very demanded in the last decades. The political and economic interdependence, the social and cultural relations between the Arab and the Spanish-speaking worlds, as well as the growing interest in the contemporary Arab world for strategic and geopolitical reasons, are reasons that have favoured the holding of meetings and multilateral conferences, and, therefore, the boom of simultaneous interpretation Arabic-Spanish (SI AR-SP), both in the national and international private market, as well as in international organizations in which Arabic and Spanish are official languages (United Nations and Union African).
This paper, which is the continuation of our previous work (Mahyub Rayaa, 2017), aims to continue to deepen the analysis of how users of interpreting services evaluate the retour of AR-SP SI. More specifically, how do they evaluate all those factors that fit the "use of Spanish" parameter, as a target language. To this end, we will analyze the results obtained in this section after probing the opinion of 25 users through a questionnaire of nine questions. Users viewed and evaluated the IS AR-ES of a 30-minute conference (literary subject).
The data obtained reveals that the users give high priority to the "use of Spanish" parameter as an important factor in the interpreting quality, and that the fact that the interpreter is not a Spanish native speaker does not seem to have a key influence on the majority of users’ evaluation, although almost all point to the interpreter’s accent and to the unnatural linguistic structures that he uses in Spanish as issues that he should improve in order for the interpretation to be of a higher quality.
Keywords: Assessment, Simultaneous Interpreting, Arabic-Spanish, Directionality, Use of Spanish.
Politics of Capital Flight: Implication for Nigeria’s Quest for Repatriation of Looted Resources
Udeuhele, Ikechukwu Godwin
This study is qualitative in nature. The data is basically from secondary sources Recourse is taken to content analysis in doing justice to the data extracted from the relevant and extant documents. This paper established that capital flight is multifaceted and has tremendous socio-economic and political implication. With recourse to public officials there are allegedly four methods for looting public resources: outright embezzlement or theft directly from the public treasury facilitated by the central bank authorities; inflation of the value of public contracts; extortion of bribes from contractors; and fraudulent transactions. Capital flight therefore hampers the growth and development of the local economy in all its ramifications. This scenario no doubt justifies the need for repatriation of looted resources, which requires the collaboration of both domestic as well as receiving foreign countries. As a way forward the study, recommended that government should initiate measures to checkmate illegal outflow of capital by passing a law that will strengthen all necessary agencies to monitor all the sectors of the economy. Policies guiding macroeconomic variables should be analyzed yearly to enhance proper implementation, and government should encourage and support local technological research and development to control the effect of capital flight in Nigeria. More so, political will, legal reform, and enhancement of investigative capacity are needed in developed countries, not just the developing countries. The former should see stolen asset recovery as a development imperative considering that it is a signal against corruption while also providing a source of development funds to developing countries. Time is of the essence. For most developing countries, prolonging the process of repatriation of looted resources will take a toll on credibility and give kleptocrats an excuse to claim victimization. A prompt, proactive response is needed from countries where stolen assets are stashed.
Keywords: Capital Flight, Looted Resources, Politics, Nigeria, Foreign Countries.
Organization of Contractual Agreements in Islamic Law, a Comparative Legal Study with Western Legal Systems
Mahmoud Fayyad
A contract is a meeting of mind between two or more parties. It is an exchange of interests where each party declares his intention to the other party and manifests what his consent intends to do. Confusion between what a party meant and said may take place. The objective theory of agreements considers the manifestation of this intention; internal intention is therefore unimportant. In contrast, the subjective theory recognizes the real will and the internal intention of this party when making the action in question; it prevails to the real consent of this party. Most of jurisdictions follow a basic objective theory of contract formation, while the French legal system follows the subjective theory. What is the position of Islamic law? This article will answer this question in addition to the explanation of which differences may be detected between these legal systems.
Keywords: Comparative contract law, Formation of agreement, Subjective and Objective agreements, Islamic contract law, Jordanian contact law.
Investigating the Curriculum Design and Adoption of UK Agricultural Apprenticeships
Christopher Bamber and Enis Elezi
This paper investigates the curriculum design and the adoption of the apprenticeship framework in the agricultural sector in England and Wales and it reviews secondary data from UK Government statistics and elicits primary data responses from apprenticeship framework experts. The paper notes that agriculture in England is a sector that provides economic wealth for many families and businesses. However, it is also noted that the younger generation whose historical background is directly or indirectly related with farming have the propensity to shift towards studying IT, business administration, law or construction and thus not necessarily contributing to the agricultural sector. The youth generation justify leaving their family agriculture business with the sacrifices required within the agricultural sector, difficulties associated with knowledge acquisition and implementation, and in some cases they consider low margin of profits. All those factors are believed to have influenced the escapism from the agriculture sector. Many authors and government statisticians consider that the disproportion, from the agricultural sector, of educational focus is predicted to later result in an increase of the socio-economic misbalance. Consequently, the UK government has introduced and promoted the apprenticeship scheme as a strategy to decrease unemployment, equip apprentices with a set of skills that would increase their employability and assist individuals in career changing. Accordingly, this paper highlights the significance of apprenticeship schemes and their curriculum design in the agricultural sector in England and Wales. Additionally, it reviews the categories of agricultural apprenticeships schemes available to apprentice learners and further considers its benefits to society.
Keywords: Investigation, Agriculture, Apprenticeship framework, England and Wales, Curriculum Design, UK Government
Recession Matters? Local Labour Markets and Regional Unemployment Divides in Italy, 2004-2013
Ilaria Zambon, Marco Zitti, Luca Salvati
Economic cycles in wealthier countries have resulted in a progressive transformation of regional spatial structures, possibly strengthening socioeconomic disparities and polarization in the production base. Local job markets are particularly sensitive to changes in economic functions, increased regional divides and stagnant product dynamics. The regional spatial structure of unemployment was hypothesized to be strongly affected by economic cycles. To verify this hypothesis, the present work investigates spatial structure and short-term changes of activity and unemployment rate in 686 local labour markets during three phases of the recent economic cycle in Italy: (i) employment growth corresponding to moderate economic expansion (2004-2007); (ii) early crisis' stage with moderate increase of unemployment (2007-2010); and (iii) late crisis' stage with marked increase of unemployment (2010-2013). The empirical analysis identified the socioeconomic factors better characterizing labour market dynamics. Results pointed out that the 2007 recession has corresponded to decreased spatial polarizations in unemployment rate, reflecting an attenuation of the traditional gap between affluent northern regions and disadvantaged southern areas.
Keywords: Local labour market, Participation rate, Unemployment rate, polarization, territorial disparities, economic crisis, Italy.
The Influence of Organizational Climate as a Mediator on the Relationship between Human Resource Practices and Employee Retention
Mohammad Fathi Almaaitah, Yoshifumi Harada and M. F. Sakdan
The most difficult challenge facing many organizations is how to manage their meager resources to generate desired productivity. The fragile of all resources available to organization is human resources (HR) because of the wave of global job mobility across local and international sphere. This study examines the mediation effects of organizational climate on the relationship between human resource practices and employee retention. A total of 383 useable questionnaires were retained for analysis out of 700 questionnaires distributed across the sampled Jordan public hospitals. The result of partial least square (PLS) path analysis confirmed that measurement model satisfied the requirement and proof the stability of items, constructs and relationships. All the four conditions for measurement model were met, viz: items loading above 0.7; composite reliability (CR) above 0.7; Average Variance Extraction (AVE) above 0.5; and discriminant validity according to Fornel and Lacker were met. The academics and industry will benefit from the implementation of this study. Also, government can draw from these results as references and recommendations within the limitations of the study. Future study directions were suggested to take care of the limitations.
Keywords: Employee retention, Human Resource Practices, Organizational Climate.
Involuntary Bumping Legality & Remedies
Eman Naboush
The latest incident of United Airlines of dragging a passenger out of the aircraft as a result of its overbooking practice and causing the passenger serious bodily injury has made it urgent for the aviation industry to re-think about this practice. It is not precisely clear how legal this practice is under the carriage by air conventions. In addition, the admissible measures that the carrier may take to enforce this practice is not clear and therefore, resulted in abuse of power by some carriers. Many cases have been decided by the courts ruling in the interest of the involuntary bumped passengers. However, the type of available remedies in such cases differ from case to another depending on whether the bumping occurred before or after the embarking operations. The uncertainty of several issues relating to the legality and recoverable remedies has jeopardised the aviation industry. This paper analysis the practice of airlines of involuntary bumping of passengers, the measures that are taken to enforce it and what remedies are available to the bumped passenger.
Keywords: involuntary bumping, overbooking, denied boarding, carrier’s liability, non-performance of contract, remedies.
Acculturation on Spatial Pattern of the Chinese Houses in Lasem
L.M.F. Purwanto and Yulita Titik Sunarimahingsih
Lasem is a city having harmonious diversity from the past until today. Chinese people mingle with the locals and they then create interesting cultural and architectural acculturation. Some studies on Lasem showed that Javanese architecture had affected Chinese architecture and, vice versa, the Chinese affected the Javanese. They accept one another and could walk together in harmony. The purpose of this study is to know what parts of the Lasem houses that were resulted by the process of the acculturation and to learn them for being implemented in today's more complex society. The method of this study is by having observations on 3 (three) groups of buildings having traditional architecture characteristics, namely Chinese, Javanese and Dutch colonial. The results show that there is a unique spatial pattern appearing. There is an effort to conserve the existing spatial patterns but there are also different architectural characteristics. Besides, there are similarities in Chinese and Javanese architectural spatial patterns.
Keywords: Chinese architecture, Lasem, spatial patterns.
Governance and Violent Conflict: A Commonsense-Model for Sustainable Economic Development in Nigeria
Ifere, Eugene Okoi
There are variant opinions as to the main causes of violent conflict experienced in some regions in Nigeria. Despite her numerous resources, poor and repressive governance had hobbled Nigeria. Bad governance had fuelled wide spread poverty, injustice, corruption and economic stagnation which have clogged up the route to sustainable economic development. Since governance failure epitomizes poverty and inequality which breed political violence; the inability of Nigeria state to perform her responsibility had exposed her weakness and fragility to violent conflict experienced in these zones, creating a vicious circle of conflict. The tetra-dimensional and ubiquitous nature of violent conflict has not only threatened the weak economy but her fragile unity, peace and security. This paper argues that bad governance is the root cause of violent conflict within these zones. Poverty, insecurity, stagnation, weak institutions and structures are only proximate and trigger causes, which arises when the state is ineffective and dysfunctional. Having identified the major factors responsible for violent conflict in Nigeria, a “common sense model of sustainable economic development” was developed. The paper further recommends inclusive governance, a fair resource rent and revenue sharing principle to accommodate development of the local communities where these resources are tapped.
Keywords: violent conflict, governance, ‘commonsense model’, sustainable development