European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 54 No 2
February, 2017
Behavioural Intention to use Social Media among the Banking Consumers in Sri Lanka – An Empirical Study
Parakum A. Pathirana and S.M. Ferdous Azam
Banking services are currently undergoing a transformational shift. Contextual banking – access to banking services when consumers want it, where they want it, in a manner they want it, fitting their life style is becoming the norm among banking consumers. This is fuelled by widespread adoption of smartphones and social networks which has transformed the consumer behaviour, thus expanding consumer expectations from banks. Consumers tend to demand user experience similar to what Tech giants are offering. Traditional banks have the opening to lead this transformation. However, they need to become agile and re-configure the way they do things. Traditional banks need to reach out to potential consumers’ way before financial decisions are made, thus attracting millennials. Number of Banks in the United States are already using Facebook messenger for customer support and also for normal transactions thus simplifying consumer experience with the Bank.
Sri Lanka with a population of 21 million people and with an Internet penetration of 25.8% and Facebook penetration of 15.4% has arrived at a crossroad. The Government of Sri Lanka has an ambitious plan of getting everyone online as means of pushing the country towards the next income level while generating more employment and foreign income while taking modern education techniques to rural communities. Despite the potential, the usage of social media among the banking sector remains relatively low. Many banking customers are reluctant to consume financial services through social media. The aim of this paper is to understand the determinants of consumer intention to use social media among the banking sector in Sri Lanka based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).
Keywords: social media, technology acceptance model, banking, disruptive technology, contextual banking
Breaking the Gender Barrier: Success Stories of Active Participation of Women in Hospitality Industry in Bangladesh
Rehnuma Sultana Khan and Sharmin Sultana
Hospitality industry is a flourishing sector in Bangladesh. As the active participation of qualified women employees is escalating gradually; they’re showing enough courage to enter this particular industry and some are leading successfully. There are internal, organizational, external or traditional barriers that hinder progress of women. The objective of this study aims to identify the existing gender barriers in this hospitality industry, to discover how successful women achieve their managerial positions and how to promote this industry as a lucrative job sector for women. Qualitative in nature, this study is based on interview of 10 experienced female respondents from managerial levels working in the sophisticated hotels in Dhaka, Chittagong and Cox’s bazar. Data is collected through open ended questionnaire. Then research based case studies have been developed based on the information gathered from the female employees who set remarkable examples in the industry. The study finds various internal and external barriers hinder women to choose this industry as career. Then it concluded with proposed recommendations to eliminate practical obstacles to female participation in the hospitality workplace and make this industry as one of the preferable job segment for women.
Keywords: Women, Career advancement, Social transformation, Hospitality industry, Bangladesh.
Introducing Critical Thinking in Religious Education Classroom
Ilechukwu Leonard Chidi and Madubuko Chijioke John
So many people may wonder what role critical thinking will play in the religious education classroom. By a way of clarification, critical thinking is a tool in the milieu of knowledge which helps to acquire knowledge, skeptically improve our theories and confidently strengthen arguments. Critical thinking therefore improves and enhances. The introduction of critical thinking to religious education classroom is to acquire more knowledge (i.e. filling our basket with good apples), improving our theories and beliefs and also to argue correctly (i.e. with facts and reasons). Religious education is something that should be faced with adequate measures so as not to get people misled. Religion is more of faith than reason. This implies that fewer questions are asked. Most people swallow the fish hook, line and sinker because of the religiosity of man. Critical thinking will be a very advantageous tool in the religious education classroom because it tends toward the perfect, the good which means striking the balance. This is in concomitance with virtue which according to Aristotle lies in the mean/middle. Not just the classroom/school curriculum, also the government as well as the parents have roles to play toward achieving the practicality of introducing critical thinking in the religious education classroom for effective results.
Keywords: Critical Thinking, Religious Education, Classroom.
Adoption of African Traditional Religious Practices in combating Corruption in Nigerian Education System
Ilechukwu Leonard Chidi, Uchem Rose, Iremeka Felicia and Ojiekwe Ephraim
The paper examined the Adoption of African Religious Traditional Practices in Combating Corruption in Nigerian Education System. Through education, future thinkers and Leaders are produced. But, it is regrettable that education system has deteriorated to the extent that instead of being an agent of transformation and an instrument of purifying the minds of the young ones to become useful members of the society, has become an agent of imparting corruption in the minds of the young ones. The existence of different forms of corruption in our institution has led to dearth and decay of infrastructure in the schools. Many methods have been adopted to stop this malaise, but they proved inadequate. Based on this, this research suggests the adoption of African Traditional religious methods in curbing the evil effects of corruption in Nigerian education system. Some of the suggested practices are: Putting the school property, money, etc in the custodian of a powerful deity, workers and students in education sector swearing oath in the shrine of a powerful and dreadful deity that they will not be involved in any form of malpractice. These and other methods suggested are hoped to be final panacea to combat corruption in education in Nigeria.
Keywords: Corruption, Education, African Traditional Religious Practice (ATR), West African Examination Council (WAEC), National Examination Council (NECO).
Spatial Distribution of Public Parks and Resident Densities in the city of Hofuf Using Geographic Information System
Aymen Abed al Kreem Ta'ani
This study aims to identify the spatial distribution patterns of parks in Hofuf, Saudi Arabia, and its relation to the distribution of population densities using geographic information system (GIS) and global Positioning System (GPS). Statistical and cartographic techniques have been used to determine the geographic distribution pattern of the parks, and the concentration size in each distribution. The results showed that the number of parks in the study area was 67 with an area of about 1,005,385 m2, and an average population density of about 656 person/m2 that varied from one area to another. The geographic distribution of the public parks has also varied in Hofuf city, where the Second Governmental Departments Compound district contains one park (King Abdullah Environmental Park) with 52.7% of the total number of parks in the study area. With a total area of parks of about 746,698.55 m2 and a total population number of 207 848 m2, the estimated park per capita was about 3.6 m²/person. The Nearest Neighbor analysis indicated that the geographic distribution pattern is random. In addition to the needs for increasing the number of public parks especially in areas with high population densities, the study also recommended that the park planning should consider serving the maximum number of residents and larger areas.
A La Recherche Du Fondement De La Réparation Pour Bruit D'avion
Imad Eldin ABDULHAY and Adnan Ibrahim SARHAN
Cette étude traite du phénomène résultant du bruit des avions avec ou sans pilote qui angoisse de plus en plus les riverains des aéroports, soit en France, soit aux Emirats Arabes Unis. Elle ambitionne de déterminer le fondement de la réparation pour bruit d’avion causant des dommages aux personnes et aux animaux domestiques.
Ceci nous conduit à examiner dans la première partie, le régime commun de la responsabilité, c’est la question du fondement juridique de la responsabilité en cas de bruit des avions en évoquant le droit commun de la responsabilité, le droit des troubles de voisinage et le droit d’environnement, en s’interrogera également sur l’action en réparation des dommages causés, sa nature et son fondement.
La deuxième partie sera consacrée à la responsabilité pour préjudices à la surface, en s’interrogeant d’une part, sur l’application du droit commun de la responsabilité ou le droit aérien de la responsabilité, et d’autre part, sur la position du droit des troubles de voisinage ainsi que celle du droit de l’environnement pour appréhender la question de la responsabilité.
On conclura cette étude avec la certitude que le droit des émirats comme le droit français paraissent comme très disparates, faisant appel à des textes et des règlements très divers les uns des autres et peu adaptés à cette matière, et on peut affirmer que des grands principes ont été établis par la jurisprudence française dans certaines affaires traitées, notamment celles relatives à l’application de l’article L. 6131-2 du Code des transports français 2010, qui a repris les termes de l’article L- 141-2 du Code de l’aviation civile français aux préjudices causés par le bruit des avions aux personnes, aux biens à la surface. Cette responsabilité est basée sur le risque et ne s’écarte que devant la faute prouvée de la victime.
En droit des Emirats, l’article 24, alinéas 3 et 5 de la loi n° 20 de 1991 sur l’aviation civile émiratie peuvent être considérés comme fondement juridique pour la réparation en cas du bruit des avions ou des aéroports dans le pays avec quelques propositions de modifications suggérées au cours de cette étude.
Keywords: bruit, avion ou aéronef, nuisance, fondement juridique, réparation, indemnisation, procès, action en justice, riverains ou voisins de l’aéroport, aérodrome, vol, survol, évolution, dommage, préjudice, dommage normal, dommage anormal, environnement, droit de la personnalité, droit de l’objectivité.
The Extent of legality of the "Operation Decisive Storm" In Yemen In Light of Public International Law
Mekhled Al-Tarawneh and Yaser Khalaileh
On 26th March, 2015, Saudi Arabia, along with a number of its allies from many states particularly from the Arab world, led a military coalition in an attempt to assist the Yemeni legitimate government (de jure), headed by the Yemeni President Abed Rabb Mansour Hadi against the Houthi rebels. “Asifat Al Hazim” (the Decisive Storm Operation) was soon announced with twofold aims: first, to protect the people of Yemen and its legitimate government from a possible takeover by the Houthi rebels (or otherwise called the Ansar Allah Fighters), who basically represent the Houthi Movement in Yemen; and secondly, to halt the advancement of the supporters of the Houthi Movement through the country.
Whilst few states, particularly Iran, have condemned the military action dubbing it at as being no less than a grave military intervention in the state of Yemen without an authorization from the Security Council (SC), the subsequent military operations have nevertheless received an overwhelming support from numerous states including the USA.
Saudi Arabia led operation indeed raises many questions: is it considered as a military intervention in any legalized sense? What are the legal justifications for such a military intervention? What, if any, argument/s can be possibly suggested to prove its illegality? Can any political rationale appropriately permit such an intervention?
This study will attempt to answer these and other relating questions, and shall do so in reference to the relevant international law and provisions. This paper will try to address these questions, and many more, and will be divided into three main sections: firstly, a presentation of the background and orthodoxies to the Yemini crisis; secondly, a focus on the military intervention and its entrenching arguments, and finally, the extent of legality of the Arab coalition intervention in Yemen.
Keywords: Intervention, Self-defense, de jure government, Security Council (SC), Intervention by invitation, Terrorism, Consent, Legality, Coalition.
Anthropological approach on the weaning trajectory of a drug ex-user from Abidjan
KOUAME Atta and TIA Félicien Yomi
This text deals with the withdrawal path of a former drug user Abidjan. He attempts in anthropological approach based on interviews with former user and some of his relatives (friends and parents), to determine the underlying logic to addictive behaviors to drugs and first aid research by parents and then by the user himself. The analysis shows that parent’s therapeutic choice, based on conventional detox treatments and guided by repression, have all failed, because of non-consent of the user at weaning program. But when he receives his addict status as a factor of humiliation, stigmatization and social marginalization, he engages in a weaning process among a traditional healer who succeeds. His self-determination and his adherence to traditional medical care have served of pillar for a successful weaning.
Keywords: Trajectory of weaning, drug, traditional medicine.
Applications of the Right to a Fair Trial to Verdicts passed by the European Court for Human Rights
Musa Shehadeh
The human right to a fair trial, otherwise referred to as the right of the individual to have his/her case tried by an independent and impartial court, is considered an essential prerequisite of the state of law; a state that recognizes that the practice of its authority, whether legislative, executive or judicial, is bound by the law. Gierke defines it as ‘a state that submits to the rule of law and not that which puts itself above the law.’ In other words, it is a state where the administration and other executive bodies adhere to the principles of legitimate administration and judicial control i.e. the law and judiciary.
Keywords: The human right, legitimate, practice, fair trial, judiciary.
L’élargissement de la fonction législative du Pouvoir exécutif à travers le pouvoir réglementaire dérivé
Par Dr Ahcene Rabhi
La présente étude a pour objet l’élargissement de la fonction législative du Pouvoir exécutif, à travers le pouvoir réglementaire dérivé. C’est une étude comparative, entre les deux systèmes juridiques, algérien et français. L’objet de l’étude relève à la fois du droit constitutionnel et du droit administratif.
Dans cette étude, nous avons mis en évidence, le fait que cette notion de pouvoir réglementaire dérivé, n’est pas consacrée par les textes juridiques ; elle est la création de la doctrine.
Ce pouvoir réglementaire dérivé, relève du Premier ministre .Il consiste en l’application des lois et règlements autonomes ; les premières sont édictées par le Parlement et les secondes par le Président de la République .C’est parce que, ces deux sources de droit, sont énoncées en termes généraux c'est-à-dire sous la forme de règles générales, que le pouvoir réglementaire dérivé, trouve sa justification. C’est lui qui explicite et détaille, ces règles de droit énoncées de façon générale par les lois et règlements.
Ces règlements dérivés, pris sous la forme de décrets exécutifs, donc édictés par le Premier ministre, sont d’autant plus importants, qu’ils lui permettent de concrétiser son programme d’action ; ce dernier devant être approuvé et par le Parlement et le Président de la République Cette double approbation, autorise le Premier ministre à user des règlements dérivés et donc à participer à l’édiction de règles juridiques, élargissant ainsi, la fonction législatives ; cette dernière étant prise au sens large.
Cependant, et afin que ce pouvoir réglementaire dérivé, ne dérive pas de la fonction, qui lui a été dévolue par la Constitution, des gardes fous sont prévus, consistant en des contrôles de conformité, que ce soit par rapport à la loi ou par rapport au règlement autonome.
Keywords: artificial agent, contract, personality, assent.