European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 49 No 2
September, 2015
Youths and Risky Sexual Behaviour: A Kap Study on Hiv/Aids Amongst University of Ibadan Student
Akokuwebe, Monica Ewomazino, Okunola, Rasidi Akanji and Falayi, Oluwaseun Emmanuel
This study examined knowledge, awareness and attitude of sexual behaviour as factors likely to affect risk-taking behaviours. Six hundred undergraduates of the University of Ibadan participated in this cross-sectional survey (100 Level and 400 Level students). Data were collected using three structured and validated scales. Results indicated that HIV transmission knowledge has a significant effect on sexual risk-taking behaviours. Misconception on the transmission of HIV/AIDS was also been reported and had a significant effect on risk-taking behaviours. Inadequate and inappropriate knowledge of HIV increases youths' risky sexual behaviours. An attitude such as one cannot contract HIV in their first time of sexual intercourse also increases their chances of risky behaviour. It is, thus, recommended that HIV awareness campaigns be intensified, while attitude-change initiatives should be embarked upon to discourage youths from risky sexual behaviour.
Keyword: Attitude, awareness, HIV, knowledge, risky sexual behaviour, youths
China – Nigeria Economic Relations: Eavesdropping or Tapping for Sustainable Development
Joseph Okwesili Nkwede
This study interrogates China-Nigeria Economic relations through inter-textuality that is grounded on critical discourse analysis. The principal objective of the study was to ascertain whether China-Nigeria economic relations has significantly enhanced sustainable development in Nigeria. To achieve the objective of the study, the researcher employed ex-post-facto design and content analytical method in the analysis of data drawn from secondary sources, while the study was anchored on complex interdependence theory. Findings of the study revealed among other things that China-Economic relation has contributed significantly to the sustainable development of Nigerian economy. The study therefore recommended more collaborative synergy between China and Nigeria with a view to enthroning favourable economic climate that would launch the countries into global economic eldorado.
Keyword: Economic relations, sustainable Development, China, Nigeria
Contribution of Abdurrahman IbnKhalduon in the Establishment of the Cognitive Integration between Social Sciences (Theoretical and Analytical Approach)
Makia .G .A. Himat
This study aims to highlight the contribution of the Arab Muslim sociologist IbnKhalduon in the establishment of the cognitive integration between the social sciences. He uses the historical and comparative method to achieve this objective. He also follows analytical descriptive methods and employs content analysis tools to examine texts and statements serving the purposes of study from his book, (Muqaddimah), as well as Arab and foreign studies dealing with his efforts and leadership in social knowledge. (Muqaddimah) Findings:-The study found a set of Results:- IbnKhaldon has followed the method of cognitive integration between the social sciences in his theories on human urbanization in various ways. His analysis and interpretation of the human and social phenomenon reflect the depth of his understanding of content and necessities of overlap between branches of social knowledge with logical and objective consistency. His employment of cognitive integration expresses his intellectual trends, stemming from Islamic perspectives in cognitive integration in the following ways:-

· Integration of sources of knowledge between sources of revelation and human beings;
· Integration of tools and approach;
· Sciences need each other at the existential and functional level, as is reflected in the ideas and general theories cited by IbnKhaldon in the (Muqaddimah)

Keywords: cognitive integration- social sciences- contribution- Islamic perspective
The Social Impact Generated From Policy Traffic and Road Transport in Indonesia
Primanto, Aji, Suwitri, Sri, M. Si, Larasati, Endang, MS and Kismartini, M. Si
Currently traffic growth is very fast, exceeding the rate of population growth and employment, the addition of road can’t be a long-term solution, as it will trigger the increase of traffic in the city. Troubleshooting in overcoming the problems of traffic, which is commonly done by municipalities that investment in highways, this is because investment is often seen highways more efficient but it raises some new problems, namely the increase of vehicles, air pollution, congestion and high accident rate, it is also the case in the city of Semarang. Many problems that occur related to the traffic policy at this time, there should be an evaluation of policy where policy success traffic as measured from the safety factor, safety, orderliness and smoothness, have a social impact in the form of shifts in the way of life, values and culture in society. Results of the research that has been conducted from interviews with relevant parties, make us know that the success of the traffic policy has not been successfully implemented in the city, and the social impact is expected in the form of shifts in the way of living, shifting values social / cultural, and community shifts do not occur in the midst of today's society.
Keywords: The shift regimen, Shifts Social values / culture, and shift the Community.
The Relationship between Embodied Cultural Capital (Subjective) and Intergenerational Mobility of Individuals with Emphasis on Bourdieu`s Cultural Capital Theory
(Case Study: 30-45 Year-Old Citizens in Gorgan)
Mansour Haghighatian, Ismaeel Jahan Bakhsh and Zahra Ghaffari
This paper was intended to study the relationship between embodiedcultural capital and intergenerational mobility of individuals in the city of Gorgan. Correlation-based survey method was used as research method. To collect data, researcher-made questionnaire technique was used. Also, face validity technique, CVR coefficient technique, and Alpha Cronbach coefficient were used to determine the validity, content validity, and reliability of questionnaire, respectively. Statistical population of this paper consists of all 30-to-45 year-old men and women who are resident in the city of Gorgan. The number was reported 146238 according to 2011 census. Research statistical volume was selected. Multi-stage random sampling method was used to select the samples. K-S test was used to identify the type of statistical method. In addition, parametric statistics (Pearson coefficient) was used for normal distribution of data. Descriptive results showed that 8.6 percent of responders was found to have descending intergenerational mobility, while 24 percent had horizontal intergenerational mobility and 67.4 percent enjoyed ascending intergenerational mobility. Finally, while studying the research hypothesis which is the relationship between embodied cultural capital (subjective) and intergenerational mobility of individuals in the city of Gorgan, it was approved at more -than -95% confidence coefficient level.
Keywords: Embodied Cultural Capital, Intergenerational Social Mobility, Gorgan.
The Objectivity and Impartiality of the Special Tribunal for Lebaanon
Dr. Mahasen M. Al-Jaghoub
The political environment of Lebanon is highly complex in nature and consists of numerous national and international stakeholders.The Special Tribunal of Lebanon has been created with the support for the UN and prime minister of the country, to cope with the threat of terrorism.
This Tribunal was the first one to be formed following crimes committed in the Middle East. The STL has been criticised for undermining the sovereignty of the Lebanese government.This study challenges issues crucial to understand matters regarding the legality of establishing such an Ad Hoc Tribunal, its procedural challenges, and finally the accusation of politicization of the court.
Keyword: Special Tribunal of Lebanon, sovereignty, ratification & selective justice
Post-modern Elements in Translation: A Case Study of Persian Translation of McCarthy’s the Road based on Newmark’s Categorization of Procedures
Ashkan Kosari and Hossein Vahid Dastjrerdi
Postmodern literature is a specific type of literary text that has postmodern elements and these elements are difficult both to recognize and translate as the translators may lack the knowledge of postmodern literature and its elements. Thus, the preset study explored the way postmodern elements were dealt with in translating Cormac McCarthy’s The Road (2006) from English into Persian based on Newmark’s (1988) framework. The researcher identified the procedures employed and the extent to which the translator had been able to preserve the postmodern elements from English into Persian. Overall, five types of postmodern elements were identified in the source text. The postmodern elements that were observed in the source text were violence, chaos, paranoia, irony and fragmentation. Forty four parts containing postmodern elements were identified and compared with their Persian translations. The Persian translator of Cormac McCarthy’s The Road had been able to completely maintain the postmodern elements in translating from English in 79.312 percent of the cases and he had been able to maintain them partially in 15.688 percent of the case and had not been able to preserve the postmodern elements in 5 percent of the cases.
Keyword: postmodern, procedure, translation, Peter Newmark, Cormac McCarthy.
Risk Factors and Early Detection of the Occurence Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Tempe Subdistict Wajo Regency
Noer Bahry Noor
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in all populations worldwide. The research aimed to analyze the relationship between risk factors and early detection of the occurence Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. This was a cross sectional study design. Samples in the research were 300 samples with sample requirements. Data collection was carried out through interviews, antropometry measurement and uptake of blood sugar levels. The data were analyzed by using statistical test of chisquare bivariat and multivariate test with logistic regression test. The result showed central obesity (p=0,000), vegetable and fruit consumption (p=0,000), physical activities (p=0,033), smoking (p=0,000) and stress (p=0,021) have the relationship with the occurence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Multivariate logistic regression test showed that the consumption of vegetable and fruit is the most influential factors on the occurence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (p=0,000). The validity value of early detection using Modified AUSDRISK score compared plasma glucose as the gold standard are the sensitivity of 93,46% and specificity of 70,98%.
Keyword: Risk factors, early detection, Type 2 DM.
Democratization without Environment: A Study of the Ebonyi State Environmental Protection Agency (EBSEPA) on Urban Waste Management and Wealth Creation
Joseph Okwesili Nkwede and Nwuzor, Chidi Iroko
The apparent lack of proper waste disposal management system and the inability of the Ebonyi State Government to decisively tackle environmental problem as to convert waste to wealth have become an intractable conflict in this 21st century. This study was therefore carried out to investigate why filthy environment arising from indiscriminate refuse dumps seem to be insurmountable in Abakaliki metropolis and to ascertain if there is any plan by individual, group or Ebonyi State Government to convert wastes to wealth. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was adopted as theoretical framework of analysis. The researchers employed a survey research design in the study while data was sourced from both primary and secondary sources. The findings of the study showed that the leadership of the Ministry of Environment seems to lack the political will, initiative and the know how to deal with the glaring environmental degradation in Abakaliki metropolis. The paper concludes that since environmental enlightenment changes the people’s attitude to waste management and disposal, it is therefore the responsibility of the Ebonyi State Government through Ebonyi State Environmental protection agency to ensure effective and efficient waste management and disposal in order to avoid health implications in Abakaliki metropolis. The study recommends among other things; that the Ebonyi State Government should immediately engage the services of private firms that have clear vision on how to convert waste to wealth thereby creating employment, tax holiday including free land to be given to such firms, the state ministry of environment should immediately organize public lectures, seminars and workshops to sensitize the residents on the most appropriate methods of disposing solid waste and defaulters of environmental laws should be tried in the court of competent jurisdiction without an option of fines to serve as deterrent to others. The implication of the above is that there is fear that the situation may soon lead to an unavoidable epidemic outbreak if urgent steps are not taken by relevant stakeholders and government.
Keyword: urban, waste management, strategy, employment, environment, Nigeria
News Commentaries of AL-Arabia TV Network Regarding the Events in Khuzestan Province of Iran; A Qualitative Content Analysis of AL-Arabia Arabic Website
Habib Javid, Seyed Ali Hashemianfar, Mojtaba Ahmadi, Ali Havasi and Abdolrahim Asadollahi
The study was investigating the news commentaries provided by AL-Arabia news channel on events in Khuzestan province of southwest Iran. To do so, AL-Arabia website was analysis using qualitative content analysis with respect to 3 theories including agenda setting, representation, and framework theories in news during a time period beginning in April, 7, 2012 and ending June 19, 2014. In this article, from news commentaries provided by the above mentioned TV channel, it was found that those in charge of AL-Arabia news channel have targeted dissatisfaction and lack of trust between the people and officials of the Islamic Republic of Iran by highlighting political, social, economic as well as environment problems for a specific ethnic group, Arabs of Khuzestan province in the southwest Iran

Monetary Policy and Stock Market Performance in Nigeria, 1981 - 2012
Jonathan Emenike Ogbuabor, Gladys C. Aneke and Ifeoma C. Mba
This study examines the impact of CBN monetary policy on the performance of the Nigerian stock market over the period 1981-2012 using an ordinary least squares (OLS) methodology. The results indicate that money supply and exchange rate impact positively and significantly on the market performance; while other monetary variables such as interest rate and inflation rate do not impact significantly on the performance of the stock market in Nigeria. Further, inflation rate impacts negatively on the market performance while fiscal deficit shows a positive impact. The study therefore recommends that expansionary monetary policy in Nigeria must be carefully implemented to mitigate the inflationary impact of such policy. Also, the monetary authority in Nigeria should maintain stable exchange rate at all times in order to ensure investors’ confidence in the Nigerian stock market.