European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 47 No 1
March, 2015

Judicial Review in the Arab States
Ibrahim M.H. Aljazy
Most prominent changes in the Constitution and the judicial system occurred after the Arab Spring of 2011, which resulted in the establishment of the most effective and well-developed Judicial system. This article aims to examine the changes in the judicial system after 2000. The changes occurred in the constitutional and judicial system of majority of the Arab countries. Since 2000, the judicial system have become more independent and separated from the influence of judicial and executive branches. This paper aims to identify the judicial and constitutional procedures of different Arab countries in order to examine the changes in the judicial system.
Keywords: Arab States, Constitutions, Constitutional Courts, Judicial Review, Judges
The Current Constitutional Situation in the Arab States Following the Arab Spring
Ibrahim M.H. Aljazy
With the collapse of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I, the Arabs found themselves seriously and dangerously divided by colonial powers seeking to extend their spheres of influence in the Arab world. Towards the end of the First World War, most of the former Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire had come under the direct influence of European powers. In accordance with the modus operandi of the colonial powers, borders were drawn and the concept of the nation-state that had begun to shape in the Arab world during the late 19th century was confirmed. For a long period of time, Citizens remain under the same constitutional system of monarch, but they kept struggling for their rights. Major changes occurred after the revolutionary wave of ‘Arab Spring’, which resulted in bringing major social, political, constitutional and legislative changes in many Arab Countries. The aim of this study is to examine the present constitutional framework of the contemporary Arab world. It includes a comparative study of all of the Constitutions of the League of the Arab States, with the exceptions of the Comoros Islands and Palestine. It discusses the main features of Arab constitutional frameworks after the Arab Spring and emphasizes the following issues such as whether the constitutions are republican or monarchical. The study also aims to address whether they were promulgated by national referendum or by the goodwill of the ruler; separation of powers; whether the constitution is rigid or flexible and whether it has entrusted any organ with the power to examine the constitutionality of laws.
Keywords: Arab states, Constitutions, Arab Spring, Legislature, Excutive, Judicial
Social Work in Kenya: Prospects and Challenges
Kennedy Karani Onyiko and Zeddy Lemein
This paper discusses the current state of social work in Kenya paying particular attention to the social work education and training, practice and regulation. It describes the state of the education, practice and mechanisms in place to regulate the profession so far. Social work has a professional mandate to enhance the functioning of individuals and groups in society so that people’s well-being is assured. Social work as a profession has existed in Kenya for many years since it was imported by the Europeans. Over the years, many changes have taken place both in the political and socio-economic arena that necessitate the review of the role of social work. To meaningfully appraise this role, there is a need to assess the current status of social work training (education) and practice in Kenya. Also of great importance for review is the role played by social work in social development. Basically, education and training is important because it is the preparatory phase for social work practice. The extent to which professional social workers execute their mandates and roles in society is principally dependent on the adequacy and relevancy of the preparation they receive in terms of training and education. Therefore, this paper seeks out to assess the murky state of social work in Kenya and then propose the desirable state.
Keywords: Social Work, Regulation, Credentialing, Licensing, Education
The Combination and Harmonization between Philosophy and Religion
M Baharudin
In the study found that, there is the combination and harmony between philosophy and religion. As contained in the Qur’an and religious thought in Islam Reviews such as thinking and philosophers of Islam Theology; first, in the Qur’an, not in found the word “philosophy” in the editorial-wording but the Koran Often uses the phrase “wisdom”, which is the equivalent of philosophy. Philosophy as an activity radical thinking and Pondering, the Qur’an repeatedly hinted at the importance of thinking and philosophizing. Second, Islamic theology, the science is very prominent style of philosophy, in particular the use of the logic of Aristotle, the main objective to fortify Whose Aqeedah Muslims from attack enemies Also WHO are using weapons of philosophy. Third, the philosopher-Muslim philosophers such as: Al-Kindi, al-Farabi, IbnMaskawaih, IbnTufail and IbnRushd they found between reason and revelation, between philosophy and religion are not incompatible. Both are aligned and both are harmony. Philosophizing mismatched. Inter obligatory or at least the Sunnah; fourthly, however fusion and harmony between philosophy and religion stigmatized by black sheets. Because this happens there is a portion of a fanatical religious leader’s once hostile philosophy. With that stated philosophy of heresy and unlawful.
Keywords: philosophy, religion, harmonization
Implications of Land Management on the Growth of Urban Tanzania: The Case of Moshi Town
Kiduanga, Juma Rashidi
Land management has been a big problem affecting the growth of many Tanzania towns and cities. The paper discusses the problem within the scope of Moshi which is one of the towns in Tanzania, focusing on the way land management has impacted its growth. Primary data were collected through interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The documentary analysis was used to collect secondary data. The theory of modernization is deployed as the tool of analysis. Findings indicate that the performance of various activities shaping the town of Moshi have not been impressive, thereby affecting the growth pace of the town. This is largely due to ineffectiveness and inefficiency of land management. The problem has hindered the town from qualifying to be elevated to the city status by 2011. The paper concludes that effective and efficient land management, will contribute to better performance, ultimately enabling Moshi town to realize growth. The paper recommends the following: (a) The Municipal Authority and Central Government have to provide fair and prompt compensation to land owners; (b) The institutions involved in land management have to reduce bureaucracy and corruption in order to speed up land survey and allocation to users and reduce land prices; (c) Effective land use plan for various activities essential for the town growth has to be designed with effective implementation by all actors and not only by residents’ demands and (d) Recycling techniques have to be applied as viable approach for waste management.
Keywords: Land management, Town growth, Moshi
Contribution à L’étude du Comportement Filtrant du Système sol-Géotextile par Essai de Gradient Ratio: Cas du sol de la Région de Tébessa-Hammamet (NE Algérien)
Karima Seghir, Abdelkader Houam, Henri Yves Faure and Cyril Guidoux
Les géosynthétiques sont des nappes synthétiques, perméables, utilisées en association avec les sols, pour améliorer leurs caractéristiques mécaniques et/ou hydrauliques ; et assurer des fonctions très particuliers à savoir: la filtration, le drainage, la séparation, et le renforcement. Dans le but d’étudier le comportement filtrant du système sol-géotextile, une étude expérimentale de filtration par des essais de Gradient Ratio du sol de la région de Tébessa-Hammamet (Algérie) et des géotextiles de différents types, a été réalisé au Laboratoire LTHE (Laboratoire d’étude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement) appartenant à l’Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France).
Les résultats ont permis de constater que le mécanisme de filtration est un phénomène très complexe et dépend de plusieurs paramètres liés au type de sol et à sa stabilité interne, au type de géotextile, et aux conditions hydrauliques du milieu. Ces éléments interviennent de façon très significative dans le comportement filtrant du système sol-géotextile.
Motsclés: Géotextile non-tissé, Gradient Ratio, Filtration, Stabilité interne du sol, Colmatage
Medical Civil Responsibility between Contractual Responsibility and Responsibility of Damageable Act in the Light of the General Rules of the Jordanian Civil Code
Mohammad Ashraf" Khalid Ali Al- Qheiwi
In this article, the author discusses one of the most important and complicated legal issues which is the medical civil responsibility due to the fact that contractual and law of torts (delictual responsibility) conflict on it, especially in the light of the absence of special rules regulate it in the Jordanian legislation.
In the light of the general rules of Jordanian civil law, medical responsibility could be contractual responsibility if there is a contract between the doctor and the patient and could be responsibility on the basis of damageable act (delictual) if there is no any contract between the doctor and the patient.
The researcher also separates provisions of contractual medical responsibility from the provisions of torts(delictual) medical responsibility in relation to prove and deny this responsibility, solidarity between doctors and / or the providers of the medical service with guarantee of the damage that occurs to the patient, and prescription of the medical responsibility action.
The researcher concludes his article with a group of results that have been reached through it and with a set of recommendations which are hoped that Jordanian legislator took them into consideration to ensure the stability and development of the employee of the medical and health professions.
Keywords: Medical Civil Responsibility, Contractual Medical Responsibility, Law of Torts (delictual) Medical Responsibility.
Attitudes toward E-Learning in the Faculty of Educational Sciences - University of Jordan
Abdeslam Fahad Al Awamrah
This study aims at: finding the trends of the students of Educational Sciences Faculty at University of Jordan towards e-learning and measuring the differences in students' trends toward e-education with different variables (sex, academic years (grades), academic specialization). The study is based on a descriptive approach which includes the use of the field data collection method by using questionnaire and statistical analysis to test the validity of study hypotheses in addition to use library survey to take advantage of books and scientific journals to build a theoretical framework and bibliographic research via computers for the previous studies. Study target group (population) consists of Educational Sciences Faculty students at University of Jordan from first and third years (grades) registered for the academic year 2013-2014 and they are estimated by (1117) students. (250) students were selected randomly in accordance with the students proportional representation among sections as a sample for the study with a rate (22%) of the study population. Consequently, the number of questionnaires subjected to statistical analysis are (240) questionnaires comprising (96%) of the sample size and (21.5%) of the study population size.
Keyword: Women's Rights, Citizenship, Family Law, Legal Reforms, Political Rights

The Relation between Leadership Styles, and Degree of Boredom Proneness, Among College of Education Graduate Students, at Umm Al Qura University
Mustafa Taha Nobani
The aim of the study was to explore the relation between leadership styles, and graduate students' boredom proneness, at the college of education of Umm Al Qura University. The researcher used two questionnaires to collect data, and employed means, standard deviations, MANOVA, and Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The Results showed that democratic leadership was the most commonly- used leadership style, and the degree of students' proneness to boredom was high. Also, the results revealed the existence of a positive correlation among autocratic and laissez-faire leadership styles, and boredom proneness, and an inverse correlation between democratic leadership style, and boredom proneness, in the domains of teaching methods and curriculum content.
Keyword: Women's Rights, Citizenship, Family Law, Legal Reforms, Political Rights