European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 46 No 3
February, 2015
The Role of Brand Loyalty in the Influence of Brand Personality on Brand Evangelism (Case Study: The Customers of Mellat Bank Branches in Shiraz)
Hojjat Vahdati, Seyyed Najm Aldin Mousavi and Mohammad Sadegh Jafari
Brand evangelism is a new term in marketing that continues the stage of brand acceptance to supportive attitudes and behaviors toward the brand and refers to the purchase intention dimensions and oppositional brand referrals or positive brand referrals. In evangelism marketing, if firms can become their consumers to their brand evangelists, they can gain maximum profits with minimal marketing costs, and may be victorious in competitions. Therefore, according to the importance of the concept of brand evangelism in marketing and in particular in services marketing, this study is aimed to identify the influencing factors on the brand evangelism such as brand personality and brand loyalty from the point of view of the Mellat Bank customers in Shiraz city, of which 378 customers were selected using random sampling. The results of testing the research conceptual model showed that the brand personality has a positive and direct impact on the brand loyalty. The brand loyalty has also a positive and significant impact on the brand evangelism and plays a positive mediator role between the variables of brand personality and brand evangelism.
Keywords: brand personality, brand evangelism, supportive behavior, brand loyalty.
Investigation of Outcomes of Quality of Working Life for Employees: A Survey in Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran
Fakhriyeh Hamidianpour, Majid Esmaeilpour, Leila Amiri and Asiyeh Dorgoee
Since human resources imply assets of any organization and realization of organizational goals relies on favorable human resources, thus attention to employees' mental and physical needs is required. Quality of working life for employees as an approach of human resources causes balance in personal and job life, increase of job satisfaction, decrease of job burnout, increase of organizational commitment, and improvement of employees' performance. The present study investigates quality of working life for employees and its effect on job satisfaction, job burnout, organizational commitment and performance of employees in Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran. This study aims to investigate effect of quality of working life for employees on job satisfaction, job burnout, organizational commitment and performance of employees. The present study in terms of aim is an applied research, and a descriptive survey in terms of data collection. The sample group consists of 165 individuals among faculty members, managers and employees at different departments in Persian Gulf University, Boushehr, Iran. The questionnaire has been used as data collection instrument. To analyze data, structural equation modeling has been used. The research findings indicate that quality of working life for employees has a positive effect on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and performance of employees. Further, a negative effect of quality of working life for employees on job burnout was not confirmed.
Keywords: Quality of working life, Job satisfaction, Burnout, Organizational commitment, Employee performance.
Study of the Effect of the Organizational Identity on the Identification of Entrepreneurship Opportunities (Case Study: Productive Companies of ILAM Province)
Mahmood Reza Esmaeili, Seyyed Najmeddin Mousavi and Elham Gheytarani
This research aims to study the effect of the organizational identity on the identification of entrepreneurship opportunities in the productive companies of Ilam province. The statistical population of the research includes all the managers in the active and semi active companies in Ilam province numbered 423; this number were acquired through the cokrun formula and random sampling method with the number of 200 persons . The research method is of descriptive-survey kind. To study the normalization of the variable data and their distribution, the kolmogrov-smirov has been used. The accumulative tools for the questionnaire data and analyze them have been used by the software of AMOS. The result shows that the organizational identity has a positive and meaningful effect on the identification of entrepreneurship opportunities, also each aspect of the organizational identity such as dynamic-ness, extendness, strategic knowledge, internal communications, tools, support and the quality of manager has a positive and meaningful effect on the entrepreneurship opportunities.
Keywords: organizational identity, identification of entrepreneurship opportunities, productive companies
Trade in Services Liberalization Challenges: Case of Jordan
Khawlah Ali AbdAllah
In this study we investigate the trade in services liberalization importance, and the challenges that confront this important sector in Jordanian economy. Trade liberalization has been considered as one of the major "policy reforms" undertaken by Jordan during the last two decades, whereby it started to make commitments under bilateral, regional and multilateral trade agreements. Services have played an increasingly important role within the trade policy reform, since it is in a track of liberalization of services sector negotiation under the World Trade Organization (WTO) as well as further regional and bilateral negotiations. This paper intends to explore the liberalization of trade in services scope and examines the development of trade in services liberalization that took place in the services sector across different types of trade agreements. One of the main challenges Jordan faces-the same as Arab countries- is how to construct trade policy that supports and conduces the development policy base. Despite Jordan is considered in the top rank in terms of number of commitments it made, still the depth of commitments of liberalization should be taken into consideration. Jordan has made substantial efforts in WTO accession especially when it made extensive market-access commitments on accession., Jordan still in the early stages of negotiations with the EU, most likely it didn't start yet, and this will create a kind of challenges of constructing negotiation tactic for services sector. The challenges will be mitigated if the Jordan's authority takes in its account the others experience specifically the EC-CARIFORUM EPA main elements.
Keywords: Trade in services liberalization, Jordan, commitments under WTO provisions, multilateral agreements. EU- Jordan trade agreement.
Assess the Impact of Brand Hearsay and Evidence on Brand Loyalty, with the Moderated Role of Personality Traits
Seyed Najmodin Mousavi, Hojat Vahdati and Seyed Abolfazl Mousavi
How to better understand the relationship between brand and customer loyalty concepts is one of the most important issues that managers face with it today's. By increasing brand loyalty the ability of the organization against threats of competitors will increase. Consequently the aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of brand hearsay and evidence on brand loyalty by the moderated role of the personality characteristics. The research sample is Saderat bank customers of Zanjan. According to Morgan table 384 were selected as the research sample, the instrument used to gather data is questionnaire which its validity and reliability were confirmed. The results of the data analysis which was obtained by the Smart PLS software showed that Brand hearsay has a significantly positive effect on the Brand evidence, customer satisfaction and Brand attitude. Brand evidence has a direct and significant impact on customer satisfaction and Brand attitude. Customer satisfaction has a direct and significant impact on Brand attitude, and also to analyze the role of personality characteristics in modulating the effect of brand attitude on brand loyalty showed that among the dimensions of personality characteristics just role of the aperture moderated compared to the experience is meaningful.
Keywords: Brand Hearsay, Brand Evidence, Satisfaction, Brand Attitude, Brand Loyalty, Personality
A Study of the welfare for teachers and educational personnel in Thailand
Chaiwichit Chianchana and Anoma Siripanich
The purpose of this study were to assess welfare for teachers and educational personnel and to develop new alternatives of welfare for teachers and educational personnel. The samples were 295 teachers and educational personnel for welfare assessment and 30 teachers and educational personnel for new alternatives development. The data were collected by assessment and survey. The data were analyzed by Mean, Standard Deviation, and Priority Needs Index. The major finding was unsatisfied welfare; that was loan with low interests, which was needed to be improved. For the issue of new alternatives for problem solutions were model of A-F, which the opinions towards feasibility and appropriateness of each alternative model are at moderate to high level. And the most feasible and appropriate model of new alternatives was "C-model".
Keywords: Welfare, new alternatives
Phralak-Phralam: The Lao Dance Form of LuangPrabang
Pimonpun Lertlam, Chalermsak Pikkulsri and Narongchai Pidakarat
Phralak-Phralam: The Lao Dance Form of LuangPrabang is one of the ancient performances of LuangPrabang Royal Palace. This study aims to find the history of restorative Phralak-Phralamtroupe and to study about the dance forms as performing nowadays. The data collected in this study came from documents and field study trips made to observe and interview the restorativetroupe of former dancing artists (dancers and musical artists, or musicians) who used to serve and inherit from the LuangPrabang Royal Palace.The study results reveal that the restorative LuangPrabangPhralak-Phralam dance troupeis the group of former dancers who used to serve in the LuangPrabang Royal Palace before the political change. The group is led by Mr. ManiwongKadtiyarat, former royal servant and currently acting as the troupe’s advisor, and Mr. SaipetKhampasid, former royal actor and currently acting as the troupe’s chairman and director. The unique dance form of LuangPrabang is about the natural use of body parts in the performance, and the application of Buddhist belief, perspective and traditional way of livelihood into the 9 chapter plays and in various places the performances have taken place, as well as the development of their costumes has been well changed following the social, economic and political factors.
Keywords: Phralak-Phralam, Dance Form, Lao LuangPrabangDance
Examine of the Relationship Family Interactions and the Social Health (A Case Study of Female Heads of Shiraz)
Maryam Zare and Parvaneh Danesh
The social health is one of the basic aspects of the community of life that are affected by various factors, such as the social, cultural, economic and demographic factors. This paper studies to evaluate the health of women heads of household and the impact of family of interactions on it. Its hypotheses have been performed according to the various theories of sociology and social psychology and were tested; the statistical population has been 206 people; the results indicate that the social health of female headed households is lower than average; also the research of hypothesis to test indicated that variables of communication skills of women, Social capital in the family and the social capital out of the family, the economic status and the education had significant and positive correlation with the social health but the employment of women of status has not relationship with their social health; the multiple regression analyzes also showed that the communication skills of women, the social capital in the family and, the social capital out the family could predict the social health of women that The beta coefficient is related to the variable of communication skills (0.286) and the lowest coefficient is related to the variable of social capital in the family (0.198).
Keywords: the social health, family relationships, communications skills, social capital in the family, social capital out of family and women heads of households.
Social Capital, Government Spending, and Poverty Reduction: Case Study in Lampung Province, Indonesia
Yulianto and Ida Nurhaida
This research aimed, first, to modelling family income (Y, as the proxy of individual welfare) based on the variables of land tenure (Fs), labour supply (Tk), expenditure social affairs (Sc), social charity (Bf), prudential attitude (Gs), entrust children to neighbours (Ta), numbers of close friends (Tn), and participation in decision making (Pt). Second, to modelling poverty level (POV) using variables of provincial government spending (G_Pub) and income share from agriculture (AGR_Sh), industries (IND_Sh), and trading (TRD-Sh). Third, we analyse public policy choices for reducing poverty. We apply the OLS Method in parameters optimization for income and poverty modelling. The testing hypotheses used T and F tests at the 5% and 10% of significant levels. The result showed that, first, the individual welfare was able to predict using the model (Y = – 177 + 116Fs – 5.1Tk + 2.64Sc - 0.503Bf – 22.4Gs + 70.0Ta + 133Tn + 8.9Pt with the R2 (adj) = 88.9%) and variable effects of Fs, Sc, and Tn were significant. Second, so do poverty level model which operate in 1 year of time lag i.e.: POV=20.17 – 0.00000133G_Pubt-1 – 0.305AG_Sht-1 – 0.070IND_Sht-1 + 1.42TRD_Sht-1 with the R2 (adj) = 83.8% and the all variables of were significant except for the IND_Sht-1. We then conducted some simulation of poverty reduction efforts by shocking variable of G-Pub by changing from 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% to 50% respectively of provincial budget of 2008 fiscal year. Under the assumption of 5% growth in the three sectors, the simulation results the cascading of the poverty in Lampung Province at levels of: 18,29%; 18,17%; 18,06%; 17,94%, 17,83% and 17,25% or would had been decreased as much as 0,09%; 0,20%; 032%; 043%; 055% and 1,13% from the poverty in 2008.
Keyword: social capital, government spending, poverty reduction, Lampung, Indonesia

Innovation Index Framework to Measure the Innovation Capacity and Efficiency of SAARC Countries
Khalid Usman and Zhiying Liu
This research article characterizes the framework to measure the innovation capacity and efficiency (innovation input and output indicators) of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries in the Global innovation index 2014. The SAARC countries need to strengthen the educational system which is the heart of the economic growth. The lack of technically skilled staff to engage R&D activities is the biggest weakness of the innovation system of Pakistan. SAARC nations needs to strengthen the education system and weakness of S&T among SAARC nations is due to the insufficient expenditures on R&D percentage of GDP, small number of S&E and low R&D values. As we know that in innovation, the hi-tech exports are as important indicators. The lower numbers of patent applications clearly indicate the low amount of innovation activities within the SAARC countries, which is attributed to the insufficient economic configuration, low patent fillings, small number of scientists and engineers and poor spending on R&D as confirmed by our previous results too. Furthermore, we find that most R&D and S&T activities in SAARC countries take place within the public sector universities, while the private sector and industry makes only a limited contribution.
Keywords: Innovation, Measurement Framework for Innovation, Innovation Capacity, Global innovation index. SAARC Countries