European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 42 No 2
March, 2014
Aesthetics and Allegory Symbolism of Luang Prabang Lacquer Wares
Chatcharin Satittummarong
This study investigates the history, development, aesthetics and allegory symbolism in the lacquer ware of Luang Prabang. Luang Prabang was chosen as the study area due to being the only place in Laos that lacquer ware was discovered and produced. The results revealed that the origin of lacquer ware of Luang Prabang in northern Laos influenced by Tai Yai and Tai Koen in Xiang Dung on the east of Shan State in Burma. The lacquer wares were utensils or wares of the king, elites and used in Buddhist rituals. Until in 1959-1975, the country’s ruling system caused the lacquer ware to be in use of every social class until nowadays. Luang Prabang lacquer were made by reproducing those made in the past and from those in neighboring countries. The lacquer wares were made in accordance with the desired use that their aesthetics were presented through their forms, structures, patterns and materials used. In addition, it revealed that the allegory symbolism, background, signification and belief in the lacquer ware came from Lao pattern arts influenced from Khmer and China. The patterns appeared on the lacquer ware were consisted of Kifai edging pattern, Choeng Pae pattern, Gaab Bua Hua Sao pattern, Dook Ngu pattern and Key pattern. These patterns appeared on the lacquer wares of Luang Prbanga, all signified the nationalism, united, nature, environment, geography and prosperity.
Keywords: Lacquer ware, Aesthetics, Allegory Symbolism.
Confessions of the So-Called Unsuccessful EFL Learners: Voices of Thai Graduate Students
Saksit Saengboon
This qualitative case study focuses on English language learning experiences of the so-called unsuccessful learners in the Thai English as a foreign language (EFL) situation. The participants (n=40), who were graduate students in the social sciences at a university in Bangkok, wrote an essay narrating their past experiences of English learning either in the secondary or tertiary level. During the course of this study, they were placed in a remedial academic English class taught at the university. Therefore, they were perceived as “unsuccessful” EFL learners, thus being qualified for this study.Their retrospective accounts were transcribed and reported verbatim and later were analyzed qualitatively for commonly recurring themes. As a result, four salient themes were identified that attested to varying experiences of English learning, namely, attitudes towards English, inescapable grammar, classroom activities and teacher’s personality. These themes were to be perceived as intertwined, rendering the participants’ experiences reflective of not only the struggles low-proficiency students endured but also the reasons why their voices should be heeded by all concerned.Their problems were beyond linguistic reasons, prompting language educators to embrace a more humanistic position and thereby to re-conceptualize the notion of opportunities and challenges of learning English in the Thai EFL context in particular.
Keywords: Low-proficiency Thai EFL learners; attitudes towards English; inescapable grammar; classroom activities; teacher’s personality.
Naga Fireballs Phenomenon: Innovation to Promote Cultural Tourism in Nong Khai Province, Vientiane Capital and Bolikhamxai Province
Watanapun Krutasaen
As a natural phenomenon related Naga ideology and culture in Nong Khai, Vientiane, and Bolikhamxai provinces, the Naga fireball has become one of main touristic festivals in Thailand. This study aims to find the history, current status of cultural tourism promotion and to create innovations to promote cultural tourism related to Naga Fireballs Phenomenon in Nong Khai province, Vientiane and Bolikhamxai Province. The study areas were in Nong Khai province, Vientiane and Bolikhamxai Province. The population and sample groups are total 27 people, including the key informants, casual informants, and general informants. The tools used in data collection are observation, interview, and survey. The study reveals that these three provinces have all connected history and belief in Naga ideology. The current tourism promotion in these three areas does not have unity and a systemized process. They still do not have a proper center of information, news and promotion which leads to the lack of potential added value in tourism. Moreover, their main tourist activities all happen during this festival only. The innovations created from this study are 1) Naga Museum and Naga Narumitra Theater, 2) Website and Multimedia Animation, and 3) Visual Arts for Tourism Promotion and Product.
Keywords: Naga Fireball Phenomenon, Innovation Creation, Cultural Tourism Promotion.
SWOT Analysis of Cultural Tourism in Border Province A Case Study of BuengKan Province, Thailand
Thirachaya Maneenetr and Thanh Ha Tran
This study aims to define the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of cultural tourism in BuengKan province, the newest Thai – Lao border province in Thailand. A qualitative research method was applied. Semi structure interviews were created to collect data from key informants included academics, planners, representatives of involved public organizations, tourism entrepreneurs and local philosophers. The results show that BuengKan province has potential for cultural tourism based on the beliefs and faith of the local residents, sacred sites of Buddhism and local foods which reflect the identity of border area between Thailand and Laos. SWOT analysis identified weaknesses and opportunities of cultural tourism in BuengKan province. Therefore, to improve cultural tourism in BuengKan province, the necessary things should be considered which are comprised of 1) establishment of official websites for cultural tourism in BuengKan province 2) supporting homestay arrangements to facilitate tourists 3) meaningfulness of cultural activities and 4) supporting local community participation.
Keywords: Border province, Cultural tourism, Elements of tourism destination.
The Outsourcing According to Indonesian Law
Abdul Rachmad Budiono
Act No. 13 of 2003 about the Manpower set up outsourcing by several requirements. This requirement is a form of legal protection for labor. Constitutional Court Decision No. 27/PUU.IX/2011 strengthen the institution outsourcing by adding several requirements.The Minister of Manpower and Transmigration regulations No. 19 of 2012 about partial referral requirements of work implementation to other companies by adding outsourcing requirements. Part of requirements in The Minister of Manpower and Transmigration regulation’s no. 19 year 2012 that mentioned contrary to the Law No. 13 Year 2003 concerning manpower. According to law science, because of hierarchy ministerial regulation under the Act, than the outsourcing requirements that applicable is Act No. 13 of 2003. This was formally still necessary testing through the Supreme Court.
Keywords: Labor law, Indonesia government
The Yantra Cloths: The Forms, Symbols and Beliefs in Northeastern Thailand
Thepporn Mungthanee
This study aims to find the history, forms, symbols and beliefs of Yantra cloths in northeastern Thailand. In the first era, Yantra cloth in this region was influenced by Mahayana Buddhism, Brahma-Hindu, and magic spells traditionally was rooted in this northeastern region’s belief. Subsequently, the Lankawongse sect of Theravada Buddhism was also influential, though still combined with local beliefs. In the past, Yantra cloths in the northeastern Thailand used the used robe of a Buddhist monk. However, at present, cotton fabrics or any simply found Yantra cloths are used. The characters written in Yantra cloths are mostly ancient Khmer scripts and Tham scripts of Northeastern Thailand. The forms of scripts and numbers include simple and complex forms. The simple forms are the symbols found in Yantra cloths in this region that consisted of 1) Buddha images 2) Buddhist saints 3) Religious places in Buddhism 4) Gods, 5) Hermits 6) Sacred Buddhist monks 7) Important Figures 8) Hand and foot prints of honored Buddhist monks 9) Holy animals 10) Lotus flowers, and 11) Fortunate stuff, such as, silver and gold bags. Yantra cloths in northeastern Thailand reflect various beliefs, including the religious and local beliefs. Nowadays, some group of people believes that sacrificing Yantra cloths will bring lucks and victory in business competition amidst the trend of consumerism.
Keywords: Forms of magic spells, Symbols and Beliefs in Yantra cloths, Northeastern Thailand.
Impact of Social Media on Culture as a Public Relation Method
Mahin Golmoradi, Nasrin Abidi and Seyde Sara Seyed Jabbari
Social media that currently employed on the internet has the advantage of being brief, targeted, and instantaneous. Social media use has increased among consumers around the world, causing an increase in the adoption of social media as an important revolution in changing of culture. Because this new form of communication is growing at such a rapid pace, it is important to analyze the impact it has on the overall public relations practice as well as on how universities are incorporating it into their communications curriculum to better prepare future practitioners. Through an online survey of Public Relations Society members, this project set out to assess the impact social media have on public relations. The result showed that no formal social media curriculum has yet been implemented; however, most departments are moving in that direction.
Keywords: Social Media, Culture, Public Relation, Communication.
Investigating the Effects of Fun at Work, Work Commitment and Positive Affect at Work on Individual Job Performance (Case Study: Islamic Azad University of Lorestan)
Mohammad Hakkak and Masoud Ghodsi
In spite of increasing growth of organizations, number of empirical researches about the effects of fun at work on individual job performance is very little. In addition, measuring being happy at the workplace hasn’t done widely. Direct relationship between employees’ happiness and organizations’ productivity, has encouraged organizations to prepare more happiness programs for their employees so that achieve higher productivity. This study tries to introduce a valuable definition for happiness and enumerate happiness benefits for organizations and managers so that encourage them to create a joyful atmosphere for employees. Method of data collection is questionnaire. Method of data analysis is structural equations modeling and partial least square. Research results approve positive effect of fun at work on individual job performance. Also, emotional and cognitive mechanisms including positive affect at work and work commitment have unique relationship with fun at work and job performance.
Keywords: Fun at work, Work commitment, Positive affect at work, Job performance.
The Relationship between the Humanistic Values of Pre-Service Teachers of Information Technologies and Their Attitudes towards Teaching Profession
Semseddin Gunduz
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the humanistic values of pre-service teachers of information technologies and their attitudes towards teaching profession. Moreover, the relationship between the teachers’ demographic information and their attitudes towards teaching profession and their humanistic values were also examined. The study group was composed of 218 pre-service teachers – 93 males and 125 females – enrolled in the Departments of Computer Education and Instructional Technologies at Necmettin Erbakan University and Trakya University. In the study, “The Scale for the Attitudes towards Teaching Profession”, “The Scale for Humanistic Values” and “Personal Information Form” were used. SPSS 15 package software was utilized during the data analysis and .05 was taken as the significance level. At the end of the study, it was found that the attitudes of pre-service teachers towards teaching profession was at medium level and there was a significant relationship between their attitudes towards teaching profession and their humanistic values. It was also determined that the pre-service teachers with higher attitudes towards teaching profession had higher humanistic values. In addition to this, female pre-service teachers had higher attitudes towards teaching profession and higher humanistic values when compared to the male pre-service teachers.
Keywords: Attitudes towards Teaching Profession, Humanistic Values, Pre-Service Teacher.
Legal Protection of Perfume: Trademarks vs. Copyrights
Khalid Mousa and Wael Armouti
The Death Ritual of Hmong in the LAO People's Democratic Republic: Pattern and Change from 1975-2012
Supot Thongnerkhaw
This qualitative study investigates the history, pattern and change in death ritual of Hmong in Lao PDR from 1975 to 2012. The data was collected in 2012 in Luang Prabang, Xiang Kwang and Vientiane by using survey, observation and focused group discussion. The results revealed that the history of death ritual of Hmong in Lao PDR started in the early 1800 when opium trade flourished during the Lao Kingdom period. This resulted in the increased number of offerings indicating the political and economic power in Hmong ritual and culture. During war time, the burial of death ritual was simple and a bamboo stick was burned before burying only. The cultural lessening during the New Economic Mechanism gave Hmong a more freedom to process the death ritual. The change happened in 2012 was the economic change that impacted in different use of objects in the ritual. More of modern objects, such watch and soda drinks were used in the death ritual. The traditional pattern of the death ritual has still appeared until now. The process of this ritual includes preparation of the body, worship the body and burial.
Keywords: Ritual, Death, Hmong, Lao PDR, Pattern, Change.
Personalized Education and its Role in Reducing Dropout Student Rates in Colombia: The CESA Case
Edgardo Cayón-Fallon and Juan-Santiago Correa-Restrepo
In Colombia the dropout rate in 2013 among business, economics and accounting schools was 53.65% at the national level. Is within this context, that the Colegio de Estudios Superiores de Administración (CESA) reported one of the lowest dropout rates at the national level. From an institutional point of view it was important to identify the key factors and determinants that led to the reduction of the dropout rate among the student body. We analyze the management practices of the institution towards personalized education from a hermeneutic perspective using the Hutchens model. The subsequent analysis allows us to identify the key factors and determinants that led to the reduction of the dropout rate at CESA.
Keywords: Personalized education, student dropout, higher education, educational management model.
JEL Classification Codes:M1, M1
Classroom Management in the Arab World
Yazid Isa Alshoraty
The study aims at examining the present situation of classroom management in the Arab world. It starts with explaining and discussing the main principles of the proactive and reactive approaches to classroom management. Then it analyzes the proofs and evidences which show that the remedial punitive approach is prevailing in Arab education. Finally it suggests adopting the comprehensive approach which incorporates prevention into remedy in classroom management.
Keywords: Arab Education, Classroom Management, Arab World, Proactive and Reactive Management.
Reasons for University Students' Non-Participation in Class Discussions
Yazid Isa Alshoraty
The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for the Hashemite University students’ non-participation in class discussions, and their relation to some variables. To achieve this aim, the researcher designed a questionnaire that consisted of two domains: The first domain was about the reasons related to faculty members, whereas, the second one dealt with the reasons related to students. 401 copies of the questionnaire were properly filled out. The descriptive research method was used. The findings of the study showed that the reasons related to faculty members played a more important role in preventing students from participating in class discussions than the reasons related to students. Also, the results revealed that the main reasons for students’ non - participation in class discussions were: student’s feeling of boredom, student’s preference to listen only, the change of faculty members’ moods, the absence of prior student’s preparation, student’s fear of making mistakes, fanaticism of faculty members to their opinions and ideas, quick anger of faculty members, lack of dialogue instruction, and students' shyness. Finally, the results showed no statistically significant differences in the students’ perception of the reasons for non-participation in class discussions due to the following variables: participation, sex, college, grade point average, and university year.
Keywords: University Students, Non-participation, Class Discussion, Jordan, Hashemite University.
Teachers’ Perceptions of Developing Thinking Skills in Jordanian Kindergartens
Diala Hamaidi
This research aimed at investigating kindergarten teachers’ perceptions of children’s thinking skills and their implemented teaching practices that develop thinking skills in the Jordanian early years educational context. The data was collected through a survey questionnaire that was developed to gather teachers’ demographic information. The questionnaires were distributed to 70 public and private kindergarten teachers in Amman-Jordan. Forty two, (60%), Jordanian Kindergarten teachers responded to the distributed questionnaires. A second method was interviewing 15 teachers from public kindergartens and 15 private kindergartens teachers who responded to the questionnaires. Findings revealed that kindergarten teachers' thinking definitions were varied. However, all of the participants presented similar insights regarding the importance of thinking and teaching thinking skills. Participants’ awareness level affected their practices in developing thinking skills among kindergarteners. The implemented teaching practices among teachers from public kindergartens and private kindergartens were different. Teachers’ perceptions of their implemented practices reflected a formal, teacher-directed skills approach instead of learner constructive approach. There were many limitations discussed from teachers’ perspectives. Future implications and further recommendations were discussed.
Keywords: Kindergarten teachers’ perceptions; children thinking; developing thinking skills, teaching practices, limitations of developing thinking skills, public and private kindergartens.