European Journal of Social Sciences

 Volume 41 No 1
 Dec, 2013
Ensuring Community Participation through Communication and Information Sharing in NGOs’ Projects: A Case Study of a NGO in Pakistan
Mumtaz Ali and Maya Khemlani David
Information sharing and communication are drawing attention of academicians and development practitioners in order to increase community participation in NGOs’ projects. Several NGOs are working for welfare and development to serve marginalized communities in Pakistan. The NGOs need to determine what level of information sharing and communication adaptation is important to them in their projects. The study utilizes an analysis of contents to view development practices with respect of information sharing and communication. Data was collected from 200 community members of rural Sindh Pakistan. One NGO (HANDS) was selected for the study. All respondents were the direct beneficiaries of the NGO. The study found that communication system in a NGO matters. The NGO is making its efforts to ensure community participation. Furthermore, community members wish that NGO should enhance information sharing and communication mechanism more. So far literature does not interconnect the communication with the community participation. The research study adds value for extending clarity that information sharing and communication are directly linked for increasing community participation.
Keywords: Communication, Information Sharing, Community Participation, NGO, Hands.
The Effect of using the Interactive Board on the Achievement of 9th Grade Students and their Attitudes Towards Chemistry Subject at the American Modern Schools in Jordan
Ammar Al-Nawaiseh, Omaya Al Zamel and Sabah Al Nawaiseh
The goal of this research is to investigate the effect of using the interactive board on the achievement of 9th grade students and their attitudes towards the chemistry subject. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher put two null-hypotheses. Also, the researcher used a multiple choice test comprising 20 items and paragraphs and a questionnaire survey consisting 12 paragraphs. The sample of the study included 36 9th grade students from The Modern American School in Amman / Jordan. The sample of the study was selected intentionally. The participants of the study were distributed over the control and experimental groups randomly. The experimental group was taught the chemistry (the periodic table) subject using the interactive board, whilst the control group was taught the unit through the conventional method. A pre- and post questionnaires were distributed to the experimental and control groups after teaching the periodic table. The findings of the study indicated that there are statistically significance difference at level (0,05) for the means of the achievement test for the two groups in favor of the experimental group that was taught using the interactive board. Also, the findings of the study showed that there are statistically significance differences at level (0,05) in developing the attitudes of 9th grade students towards chemistry subject due to the use of the interactive board. This research recommends that the interactive board be activated in teaching all the subjects because of its positive effect on the achievement of the students and developing their attitudes towards chemistry subject.
Keywords: Smart Board, Interactive Board, Achievement, Attitudes, Chemistry.
Development of a Model of Sustainable Land Administration System Involving the Integration of the Cadastral Information System
Sakchai Aek-Inthumas and Roongrasamee Boondao
The objectives of this research are: 1) to study problems of land administration system; 2) to develop a model of sustainable land administration system; and 3) to make an experiment with the model and assess its effectiveness. Employing purposive sampling, this research is a qualitative research collecting data from documents and focus groups with 15 civil servants at Chiang Mai Provincial Land Office and another 15 at Ubon Ratchathani Provincial Land Office and 10 participants from each of people’s networks. It also conducted in-depth interviews with 7 important persons between December 2010 and February 2011. After performing content analysis of the data, the research developed a model of sustainable land administration system which was assessed by 5 specialists. The model was tested and assessed by purposive samples of 15 civil servants at Songkhla Provincial Land Office and 10 participants from people’s networks in Songkhla Provincial Land Office in March of 2010. The research findings are as follows. First, the state lacked a unity in land governance. Both state and private sectors faced the problem of land tenure security. There also existed the problems of large land holdings, unused land, a lack of support for land tenure distribution, and a lack of people’s participation in land administration system. The development of cadastral information systems will be a necessary condition for sound land administration system. Second, the assessment showed that the model had a high overall suitability level (mean = 4.22 out of 5). Third, there was a significant difference between the mean knowledge and attitude scores of the workshop participants at pre-test and post-test stages at the level of 0.05.
Keywords: Cadastral Information System, Land Administration System, Multipurpose Cadastral System, Sustainable Development
Adoption of Digital Media as the ASEAN Tourism Marketing Strategy
Laddawan Jianvittayakit and Therdchai Choibamroong
The digital media has increasingly become a critical tool to attract tourist to a destination, especially in this digital era. The digital marketing performance among ASEAN countries, which have been integrating into one single market, is still diverse due to various factors. The integration of ASEAN nations would empower the member countries to promote the region as one destination. Thus, the digital marketing strategy would become more important to be a guideline and directions for the ASEAN NTOs in order to leverage performance of the region’s tourism industry in the competitive world. This article, consequently, presents the importance of digital media as means of information communication in tourism industry and draws an attention on the importance of digital strategic tourism marketing planning as an approach to enhance the tourism competitiveness of region. More importantly, it calls for an integration of ASEAN NTOs to align their digital marketing strategy in order to boost up the entire regional tourism sector.
Keywords: ASEAN NTOs, Digital Media, Digital Tourism Marketing, Tourism Strategic Planning.
The Effects of Technology Transfer Support, Mechanism Transferee, Transferor and Technology on Technology Transfer Performance: A Holistic Model
Mohammed S. Al-Abed, Zainal A. Ahmad and Muhammad A. Adnan
The purpose of carrying out technology transfer (TT) in developing countries is to resolve technical issues and generate success that will assist reach organization objectives and accomplish the organization mission. Technology transfer has been widely investigated and since evaluating the effectiveness of the transfer process is the current issue in the developing countries, therefore it is often measured by technology transfer performance. Based on the resource-based view (RBV) and knowledge-based view (KBV) perspectives, the main objective of this paper is to examine the effects of technology transfer support, technology transfer mechanism, transferee characteristics, transferor characteristics, and technology characteristics on technology transfer performance. Using the quantitative research approach, the theoretical model and hypothesized relationships among the variables were tested based on empirical data collected from 514 managers and engineers selected randomly from nine oil and gas companies in Yemen. The data collected by survey questionnaire were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) with the utilization of AMOS version 21.0. The study provides empirical evidence on the effects of TT support, TT mechanism, transferee characteristics, transferor characteristics, and technology characteristics on technology transfer performance. This study provides a set of practical implications for the Government of Yemen, policy makers and managers in the oil and gas industry in Yemen on how to be successful in implementing technology transfer projects.
Keywords: Technology transfer, Technology Transfer Performance, Oil and Gas, Yemen.
The Bronze Tyles, Patterns and Symbolic Representations in Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Phadet Sukkasem
Bronze drums are a precious antique used in a variety of rituals since the metal age, about 2,000-3,000 years ago. It was used in the areas of southern China and some countries in Southeast Asia. In Lao People's Democratic Republic, it is called "Khong Bong". Bronze drums are used in religious rites, and its use is a shared culture found in several areas, including Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Philippines. The objectives of this study are to study the history of bronze drums and their styles, patterns and symbolic representation in Lao People's Democratic Republic. By using a sample purposive, field study trips were mainly used in this study to interview key and general informants in Laos. The tools used in data collection include surveys, observations, structured and unstructured interviews. The data collected then was systematically synthesized and presented by using descriptive analysis.
Keywords: Styles, patterns, symbolic representations, bronze drums in Laos.
Politico-Economic Institutions and Economic Performance Evidence from East Asia and Latin America, 1990-2009
Pananda Chansukree
It is evident that a country’s political and economic institutions affect its economic performance. However, it is difficult to identify exactly which institutions matter and exactly how they matter. Therefore, this study aims to empirically investigate the impact of politico-economic institutions on economic performance measured by GDP per capita growth, unemployment, poverty, and income inequality in selected developing countries in East Asia and Latin America over the period 1990-2009. The comparison of East Asia and Latin America is driven by the belief that Latin America has much to learn from East Asian countries’ economic success. The findings and insights in this study will enable developing countries to identify areas regarding their politico-economic institutions that require improvement. Therefore, adequate policies aimed at creating a functional and growth-enhancing institutional framework would be implemented. This study finds that, in the full sample, economic freedom and regulatory quality have the expected effects on economic performance and that the relative importance of politico-economic institutions varies by region.
Keywords: Political Institutions, Economic Institutions, Economic Performance, East Asia, Latin America.
Correlates of Housing Conditions in Rural Nigeria Empirical Evidence from Oil - Rich Akwa Ibom State
Usen P. Udoh and Joseph T. Uyanga
The study assessed the conditions of rural housing and the extent to which housing conditions relate with household socio-economic characteristics in an oil-rich Nigerian State of Akwa Ibom. The study design was based on household cross-sectional survey. Direct observation and questionnaire administration were employed to collect both socio - economic and housing data from 540 randomly sampled households spread across 90 rural communities. Housing Condition was measured using five broad indicators: safety/security, indoor temperature/ventilation, building condition, hygiene/sanitation and environmental quality, while socio-economic characteristics were examined using income, educational attainment, occupation, household size and crowding. Alongside descriptive statistics, the multiple correlation technique was used to analyze the relationship between housing conditions and socio-economic variables. Results showed an overwhelming poor condition of housing among the rural households. Majority of households were found deficient in facilities necessary to promote safety, security, comfort, hygiene, sanitation, and environmental quality. The study also found households’ socio-economic characteristics to be highly correlated with housing conditions and therefore provides the basis for massive rural empowerment and development drive as a means to counter rural housing decay.
Keywords: Akwa Ibom State, Housing Conditions, Housing Indicators, Rural Nigeria, Socio-economic characteristics.
An Analysis of Pre-Service Teachers’ Dispositions Towards Mathematics
Yazan Alghazo, Christina McIntyre and Emad M. Alghazo
Mathematics as a subject area is generally thought of as difficult and complicated and, as a result, it is culturally acceptable for a student or a teacher to refer to themselves as “not a math person”, while, in contrast it is not acceptable to be “not a reading person” (Epstein and Miller, 2011). This general acceptance of not being good at math stems from an underlying phobia or negative disposition that most students, as well as teachers, have towards mathematics. This study aims to investigate pre-service teachers’ dispositions towards mathematics; several functions of mathematical disposition are analyzed. Interviews are used to gain a deeper understanding of any reasons for those pre-service teachers’ dispositions towards mathematics. Findings revealed math anxiety as a function that negatively influences mathematics disposition and consequently teacher performance. Two main reasons causing math anxiety among students were identified: Lack of differentiated instruction, and timed math tests. Results and recommendations are further discussed.
Keywords: Mathematical Disposition, Math Anxiety.
Quality of Life Among Farmers in Selected Granary Areas in Malaysia
Rika Terano and Zainalabidin Mohamed
Since 2002, the Government has reported that the Quality of Life (QoL) for the Malaysians on average has been rapidly improving. The Malaysian Government through its poverty alleviation program has put emphasis on narrowing the economic gap between the urban and rural areas. The objective of this study is to explore the QoL not only in terms of its objectives but also from the point of the subjective measurements among the rural population in the selected granary areas of Malaysian. Structured questions were developed to gather information on the paddy farmer’s socio-demographic factors and their perceived level of satisfaction. Factor analysis was used to uncover the latent factors as the subjective measures of QoL. The results show that the services and governmental support in paddy farming, cooperation among farmers, satisfaction for jobs, living conditions within the community, hobby and leisure, satisfaction with income were highly rated as factors that increase the level of farmer’s satisfaction. Regression analysis was estimated and the results indicate that farmer’s education, characteristics of farm household, residential location and the satisfaction factors were important variables in determining the level of satisfaction experienced with life.
Keywords: Quality of Life, Satisfaction, Paddy Farmer, Granary Areas, Regression, Factor Analysis.
An Economic Evaluation of Electricity Produced by Photovoltaic Systems (Case Study of Residential Isfahan)
Abbas Ali Abounoori, Hassan Ahmadi and Ahmad Abbasi
Solar energy is one of the important types of renewable energy. The important for issue of environmental protection as well as security of electricity led to the production of electricity from solar power is emphasized. Purpose of this article is the economic evaluation for applying of photovoltaic systems in order to supplying the electricity for Isfahan households. Therefore, within the estimate of the power consumption of each house in the city, the economic evaluation for use of photovoltaic systems has been conducted through two methods of Net Present Value (NPV) and Service life Standard (SL). Results suggest that the use of photovoltaic systems in Isfahan on the present situation has not economic feasibility.
Keywords: Renewable Energy, Solar Energy, Economic evaluation, photovoltaic systems, Net Present Value, Service life.
JEL Classification: P28, Q32, Q57
Compare Kaveh Uprising in Religious and Historical Texts and Archaeological Findings and Picture of the Entrance of the Afshinha Palace (in Tajikistan)
Mahin Ahbabi
Kaveh uprising, partnerships and alliances Iranian people with the royal family shows In the fight against foreign invasion of airyan?m vaejah (which approximately means "expanse of the Aryans, i.e. Iranians) and the Aryan religion. Kaveh the blacksmith (Persian: Kaveh Ahangar known as The Blacksmith of Isfahan or Kaveh of Isfahan is a mythical figure in Iranian mythology who leads a popular uprising against a ruthless foreign ruler, Zahhak. Kaveh who launched a national uprising against the evil foreign tyrant Zahak, expelled the foreigners and restored the pure race of the Iranian Fereydun and achieved independence for Iran. In this paper an attempt has been On the one hand Kaveh uprisings from three perspectives historical and religious texts, Picture of entrance of Afshiniha palace and Archaeological findings in north of Iran Which sources are reliable, Studies have shown that According and picture of entrance of Afshiniha palace, Kaveh, and Fereydoun have been together from the beginning of the uprising and are fighting with Zahhak and puppet rulers and they are winning. Something that is not mentioned in historical texts or in a manner different from what is shown in the in the palace entrance of Afshiniha. On other hand, Kaveh elimination from the historical texts and differences Stories in historical sources, in picture of entrance Afshiniha palace and archaeological findings in Marlik in Gilan province with Land and Trible of Fereydoon.
Keywords: Varen, Marlik, F., Zahhak, dragons, mehregan, picture of entrance of Afshinha palacee, Faar(pron)
Educational Quality of Small Schools in Thailand
Khajornsak Buaraphan
Nearly half of the schools in Thailand are small schools having less than 120 students. Educational quality of these small schools has been continuously questioned from the stakeholders. The Ministry of Education (MOE), therefore, has been initiated several projects to improve educational quality of the small schools. This study aims to explore educational quality of the small schools in Thailand between the 2010 and 2011 academic years. To do that, the Ordinary National Educational Test (O-NET) scores of the grade 6 students graduated from small schools were collected from the National Institute of Educational Testing Service (NIETS) and quantitatively analyzed. The major findings revealed that the highest and lowest O-NET mean scores for the small schools were normally in the Health and Physical Education, and the Foreign Languages learning areas, respectively. Importantly, the O-NET mean scores of the small schools in 2011 was significantly higher than 2010 in all learning areas. In addition, a region the small schools located was found as one important variable affecting their O-NET mean scores. This study suggests the educational policy makers to reconsider a small school closure and consolidation policy and find appropriate policies and practices for individual small schools, which can serve them to effectively and sustainably work within their specific limitations.
Keywords: Small schools, Educational quality, Educational policy, National test, Thailand
Investigating Effective Factor Impacts on FDI Inflow in Iran using ARDL Model
Ali Fegheh Majidi
According to the role of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in economic growth and development Investigating of its effective factor is particularly important. This paper surveys the factors affecting FDI over the period 1979-2012 using Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Method. The result shows that GDP, Economic Openness and FDIt-1 have significant and positive effect on FDI inflow, while government size and inflation rate have significant and negative effect. The speed of adjustment implied by the error correction term coefficient is 23 per cent.
Keywords: FDI Inflow, ARDL, Cointegration.
Palestinian EFL Teachers' and Students' use of L1 in English Reading Classes: Purposes and Reasons
Enas Abdullah Rajab Hammad
The L1 (first language) use in foreign and second language classrooms has been recently associated with a great deal of debate. This study aimed to provide insight into Palestinian teachers' and students' use of Arabic (L1) in two different instructional settings of EFL reading classes (i.e., public and private preparatory schools). Data in the study were gathered by two qualitative methods: non-participant observations and semi-structured interviews. First, 32 English reading classes (about 24 hours) for a total of 16 teachers were attended and audio-recorded. Then, to supplement the observational data, the 16 teachers and another 18 students (12-15 years old) were interviewed in 12 focus groups. The data analysis revealed the purposes the participants had for using Arabic (L1) in English reading classes (i.e., teacher's L1 use for giving instructions, teacher's L1 use for translating a sentence in the text, student's L1 use for translating a sentence in the text).The results of the study also showed that the frequencies of the purposes varied remarkably in the two instructional settings, depending on the stage of the reading lesson (i.e., pre-reading, while-reading, and post-reading). In light of the study results, implications were offered.
Keywords: The L1 use, Arabic, Palestinian, teachers, students, EFL instructional settings.