European Journal of Social Sciences

 Volume 40 No 3
 Nov, 2013
Influence of Metacongitive Teaching Strategy on Critical Thinking Skills for the Tenth Grade Students in Jordan: Multidisciplinary Study
Hamed Abdullah Talaafha, Ibrahim Mohammad Hammad and Mon’em A. Al-Sa’aideh
The study aimed at revealing the influence of using the meta-cognitive teaching on the development of critical thinking skills for the 10th grade students. Subjects of the studt were (295) students who were selected by cluster- random method, they were randomly divided into two groups, one is the experimental with 152 male and female students who studied in the meta-cognitive teaching in units from the subjects of (geography, pre-vocational education, and Islamic education) and a control group with 143 students who studied in the traditional way. The study instruments prepared were: the meta-cognitive teaching plan for each of the subject units, and a critical - thinking skills’ test. This test had 58 clauses divided into 5 sub- tests: conclusion, recognizing facts and assumptions, deduction, interpretation and criticism. The study results showed that there were significant differences in the critical thinking skills’ attributed to the teaching strategy in favor of the meta-cognitive strategy, gender in favor of the females. The results also showed statistically significant differences for this strategy effect on developing critical thinking skills on the subtests (recognizing the facts, assumptions, interpretation and criticism. Statistically significant variables were also noted on the five subsidiary tests attributed to gender, in favor of females. However, no differences were found to interaction between the strategy and the gender. The researchers recommended and stressed on the importance of following the metacognitive method in teaching geography, conducting training workshops for geography teachers to enable them to observe the meta-cognitive thinking concept, the way of teaching it and its strategies.
Keywords: Metacognitive Teaching Strategy, Critical Thinking Skills.
Evaluating the Theory-Based Media Literacy Education on a Sample of Iranian Adolescents
Mohammad Hossein Kaveh, Davod Shojaeizadeh, Narjes Geraee and Hamid Reza Tabatabaee
In today’s saturated media world, teaching media literacy is the best way to protect adolescents from harmful effects. Although theory plays the role of guide in needs analysis and analyzing the addressees’ behavior, there is no commonly accepted theory of health-related media education. This study utilized data from a randomized trial evaluating the effect of media literacy training emphasizing TV commercial advertisements on the constructs of Integrated Behavior Model (IBM) as the most recent formulation of the models of individual behavior. We examined change in main constructs of this behavioral model for two groups: intervention (n=112) and control (n=101) using a validated and reliable self-administered questionnaire. Compared with controls, intervention students showed significant improvement in most of the constructs of the model include Knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived norm, and intention. Antithesis results were also obtained regarding the attitude construct. In spite of the positive effects of the training program on the students’ attitude toward the commercial advertisements, no change was observed in their attitude toward the person who is influenced by the advertisements. Despite some unforeseen results, this study showed theory-based approaches for teaching media literacy are useful improving effectiveness of such programs.
Keywords: Media effects, TV commercial Ads, media literacy education, adolescents, Integrated Behavior Model [IBM].
JEL Cassification Codes:
I10 & I21
An Effective Glance over A History of the World in 10.1/2 Chapters by Julian Barnes under The Light of Linda Hutcheon’s Historiographic, Metafictional Theories
Shalizeh Hajian, Jalal Sokhanvar and Tina Takapouie
Julian Barnes’ novel, ‘A History of the World in 10.1/2 Chapters,’ was investigated using historiographic metafictional theories by Linda Hutcheon in post-modern philosophy. Since the most important sections of the historiographic metafictional procedure also are apparent elements in Julian Barnes’ works, the ambivalence and indeterminacy of history are to be investigated in this reading. The concepts of real and unreal truth, with their own historical contextualities and inter-contextualities in the literary mode, are paralleled to evaluate and estimate objective and subjective knowledge. The essence of reality and imagery in the novel is challenging, and sometimes these concepts overlap each other in a way that their borderline is not clearly set. Therefore, the researcher must attempt to display and illustrate the precise and accurate border between them in their objective and subjective circumstances as clearly as can be expected in the existing interpretation.
Keywords: Discourse, Discursive formation, Historiography, Metafiction.
Judicial Control Over Administrative Discretion
Osamah Ahmed Al Naimat
We have been motivated to make this research, in spite of the large number of writings produced on its subject, as the majority of these writings have not dealt with the aspects we wish to address, particularly on the following matters: First: Fundamental consideration of the historical development of executive and judicial powers from absolute into restricted, given that the historical dimension always leads to broader and more accurate understanding of the present; Second: Appropriate tackling of both; the constitutional (Separation of Powers doctrine) and legal (administrative law) doctrines of the administrative discretion; since understanding the doctrine and its dimensions in a necessary introduction to apprehend and assess the content to be considered, and identify its realistic technical principles and dimensions; Third: Discretion, ipso facto, is a critically accurate matter; if it is overstated, it may go astray, while if it is diminished, it may lead to freezing. Hence, it is necessary to make a careful consideration of the aspects of exaggeration and excess of it, to be able to derive the appropriate safe moderation in this respect. To address all the above in a systematic way, this research has been produced in three themes as follows: Theme One: The concept of administrative discretion of an administrative body; Theme Two: Constitutional and legal principle of the administrative discretion of administrative body; Theme Three: Cases where the administrative discretion is subject to judicial control or the limits of administrative discretion; A conclusion and recommendations follow these themes together with a list of reference used to carry out this research.
Chiang Khan Community: The Reproduction of Local Cultural Identity for Nostalgic Consumption Amidst the Globalization
Nikom Chompoolong
This qualitative research aims to study the history and background, current status, and reproduction of local cultural identity of Chiang Khan Community for nostalgic consumption amidst the globalization. Population and sample groups are in Chiang Khan Community, Loei Province. The tools used to collect data include surveys, interviews, observations and recorded group discussion. The concepts and theories of Cultural Reproduction, Nostalgic Consumption, Functionalism, Structural Functionalism, Cultural Ecology, and Cultural Diffusion are used and presented by using descriptive analysis. The research finds that the culture was transmitted from Lan Xang Kingdom in Luang Prabang and Sanakham, Lao PDR. There are 20 significant cultures in this community, and three of which have reproduction for nostalgic consumption; including Sai Baht Kao Nieow (giving sticky rice as alms), End of Buddha Lent Festival, and Wooden Houses along Mekong River. The characteristic that has been reproduced the most is reproduction for development. Finally, I’ve found that if the globalization does not impact Chiang Khan local culture, the reproduction will not happen. The community will maintain their locality. The reproduction of local cultural identity is the use of globalization wisdom to adjust the local wisdoms in order to increase the value and price of Chiang Khan Community.
Keywords: Reproduction, Nostalgic Consumption, Cultural Identity of Chiang Khan Community.
State Terrorism A Political Approach to the Concept
Omar Al Hadrami
The terrorism phenomenon is considered as one of the most dangerous phenomenon witnessed by the international community at the present time, where people as individuals, communities, states and organizations have been entirely occupied by this critical phenomenon, because it constituted a direct and immense threat, not only to people's belongings and their means of subsistence and livelihood, but it hijacked their souls and destroyed their societies making them live in constant and continued terror, as well as fear that lives with them day and night. Terrorism will continue in all its forms and concepts, whether those agreed on, or disputed, while it will only be stopped by human beings going back to reason and justice, fairness and cooperation, in addition to concerted efforts to combat it. What makes matters become more complex and dangerous is that there are many big and powerful countries that started to practice terrorism, failing to respect the meaning of pure force employed in the service of humanity, while giving preference to their own self interests over those of others, and foremost, disregarding international law. To this end, these countries began legitimizing their terrorist practices on the basis of being the only human organization that has the "mandatory legitimate force". In order to put this issue in its political framework, the researcher will seek to approach the concept of "State terrorism" being the most dangerous and capable of harm, which directly affects the last defense line that protects the individual and human being in our current time.
Keywords: Terrorism. State. State terrorism
The Effect of Communicator, Message, Channel, and Communicant on the Effect of Communication
Anneke Rintjap, Budi Hartono, Darsono Wisadirana and Femi Hadidjah Elly
Beef cattle is one type of animal that could potentially be developed in North Sulawesi. In order to increase economic growth, local government established this as a mainstay livestock especially in this sub-sector. As proved that the role of this cattle can be a source of revenue and foreign exchange for the region, source of farmer's income, labor resources, and sources of organic fertilizer. This study examined the effect of communicator, message, and channel on the quality of communicant and their effects on communication effect. The results showed that the Communicator directly affects farmer’s communicant in group communication. Communicator also affects the effectiveness of the communicant through message. There is effectiveness of message on the communicator’s influence on the communicant. This means that the more qualified communicator, the more qualified communicant would be when the message is delivered effectively. Communicator influences Communicant through effective channel. There is effective channel on the influence of communicator on communicant. This means that the more qualified communicator, the more qualified communicant would be when channel is delivered effectively. With the qualified communicator, message effectiveness and the effectiveness of channel on communicant would give impact on farmers by increasing communication effects on conscious attitude, interest, assess, try, and accept communication in breeding.
Keywords: Communication effects, SEM analysis, communicant, communicator
Factors Forming the Organizational Citizenship of Employee Behavior at PT Barata Indonesia (Persero)
Benny Hutahayan, Endang Siti Astuti, Kusdi Raharjo and Djamhur Hamid
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) nowadays continues to encourage the interest of researchers and practitioners. The emergence of willingness to perform OCB related to individual and organizational performance. OCB is the action of employees performed voluntarily and outside of their roles that can make a positive contribution to the organization (company). PT. Barata Indonesia (Persero) is a State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs). PT. Barata Indonesia (Persero) currently requires strong support of OCB from all employees in order to realize the success of the company. OCB is necessary in order that each employee contributes to optimal and not just limited to work in accordance with the description of the task. With the strong OCB within each employee, it will further accelerate the achievement of corporate goals. The results of this research indicate that the factors that directly affect OCB are rewards and Cultural Organization. Transformational leadership affects OCB indirectly through Organizational Culture and Rewards.
Keywords: Transformational leadership, organizational culture, rewards, and OCB.
The Effect of Work Stress on Productivity with Mediation Locus of Control and Social Support
Fajar Saranani
The development of industrialization and rapid technological innovation makes the company more competitive in the face of the current era of globalization. Companies are required to run a better role in achieving the company's goals and enhance optimal performance. In addition to the use of modern technology, the company also must pay attention better to the management and coordination of human resources so that a synergistic relationship exists between the company and the workforce. Work stress often causes problems for workers, both in the executive group (white collar workers) and ordinary worker group (blue collar workers). Work stress can harm our workforce health, both physically and emotionally. This research will examine the mediating effect of locus of control and social support on the effect of work stress on work productivity. From this research, it is shown that the hypothesis showing that the variables mediating the effect of work stress on productivity through Locus of Control was denied. This indicates that the variable Locus of Control is not a mediating variable on the effect of work stress on work productivity. This also proved that social support is not a mediating variable in the hypothesis of the effect of work stress on work productivity through social support.
Keywords: Job Stress, Locus of Control, Social Support, Work Productivity, SEM analysis of mediation
Emotional Intelligence Development in Management Education: the ARM Theory Incorporates Potential to Develop Emotion-Related Abilities (Emotional Intelligence)
Wolfgang G. Scherl
The concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been widely taken up, but is still contentious, with social scientists disagreeing over theory, although the research is promising in terms of EI measures and development. Few attempts have been made to apply EI in the management education context though, research underlines the importance of EI for organisations and the potential of developing EI through management education. This paper demonstrates a unique approach to developing EI skills within higher education. A conceptual model (ARM) has been devised, which constitutes an approach to enhance emotion-related abilities and skills based on the EI construct of Mayer, Salovey and Caruso (2000a). ARM training reflects a cycle of emotional Awareness, Reflection and Management focusing on affective, cognitive and behavioural aspects of EI as well as Kolb’s (1984) learning theory through ‘feeling-thinking-doing’. A repeated measures evaluation of applied EI training with pre- and post-tests is used to test whether the ARM model enhances the overall EI of individuals. The study demonstrates EI training was effective, with significant improvements of the overall EI score and the four factors with sufficiently large effect sizes. Further applications of EI development based on these results will be discussed.
Keywords: Management Education, Development of emotion-related abilities, Emotional Intelligence, Soft Skills, ARM Model, Repeated Measures Research.
Measuring the Effects of Diversity and Appropriateness of Technology Transfer Mechanisms on Technology Transfer Performance
Mohammed S. Al-Abed, Zainal A. Ahmad and Muhammad A. Adnan
The characteristics of the mechanism of transferring technology from the transferor to the transferee companies play a critical role in the effectiveness of the process of technology transfer. Since evaluating the effectiveness of the transfer process is the current issue in the developing countries, therefore it is often measured by technology transfer performance. The main objective of this study is to examine the effects of diversity and appropriateness of technology transfer mechanisms on technology transfer performance. Using the quantitative research approach, the theoretical model and hypothesized relationships among variables were tested based on empirical data collected from 514 managers and engineers selected randomly from nine oil and gas companies in Yemen. The data collected from the survey questionnaire were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) with the utilization of AMOS version 21.0. The study provides empirical evidence on the effects of diversity and appropriateness of technology transfer mechanisms on technology transfer performance; namely, improved knowledge, improved working practices and long-term adoption of transferred technology.
KeyWords: Technology transfer, Technology Transfer Mechanism, Technology Transfer Performance, Oil and Gas, Yemen
The Relationship between Ethical Climate and Organizational Justice Among Employees
Melahat Önere, Ebru Gamze Çiftçi and Yusuf Uludag
Although the developments and advances of our age have made positive contributions to business life, they have also engendered various problems. In conjunction with such problems, "business ethics," “ethical climate” and “justice” have become even more important aspects of business life. This study was based on the hypothesis that there is a significant relationship between ethical climate and organizational justice within organizations; as such, this study attempted to identify the relationship between these two aspects with a questionnaire form administered to employees. In this context, within an institution with a study population of 657, questionnaire forms were administered to a total of 235 samples. The “Ethical Climate Scale” developed by Schwepker (2001), and the “Organizational Justice Scale” developed by Donovan, Drasgrow and Munson (1998) were used in the development and design of the questionnaire form. Both of these scales have been administered in previous studies conducted in this area within Turkey. On the SPSS 16.0 program, validity and reliability tests were performed on the obtained results along with frequency, t-test, ANOVA, correlation and regression analyses. Based on the obtained results, the relationship between ethical climate and organizational justice was found to be significant./sup>
Keywords: Ethical Climate, Organizational Justice, Public Institution, Employees.
Consumer Demographics and Supermarket Preference: Indian Scenario
Hemalatha Jeyachandran and Haider Yasmeen
Retail industry in India has witnessed the emergence of supermarkets in the last decade. Supermarkets are large retail establishments that primarily sell food and grocery products. The increased disposable income and the changing lifestyle of Indian households are leading to a shift in the preference of retail formats. Customers prefer to shop in the supermarkets due to various factors. In this study, an attempt is made to understand the role of consumer demographics in customers’ preferring supermarkets for buying food and grocery items. The study was carried out in Chennai and the respondents include customers who buy food and grocery items for their household consumption. A structured questionnaire was used for collecting primary data from the respondents. Consumer demographics such as age, qualification, monthly household income and family size were used to predict customer preference of supermarkets. Age and monthly household income emerged as the predictors of customer preference of supermarkets. An independent samples test was employed to find out the gender difference in the customer preference of supermarkets. The results showed that there is no significant difference in the supermarket preference between male and female.
Diffusion of Innovation Patterns among Poverty Alleviation Agencies and Sustainable Development Challenges in the Niger Delta Region: The Rivers State Experience
Godwin B. Okon
The thrust of this paper was predicated on how well the poverty alleviation agencies in Rivers state have been able to streamline the precepts of their programmes to square with the dynamics of diffusion of innovation with a view to according sustainability to poverty eradication. Two government agencies concerned with poverty alleviation – The Adolescent Project (TAP) and Empowerment Support Initiative (ESI) – were purposively sampled based on operational visibility between 1999 till date. Analysis was done through focal group discussions in the form of Participant Cluster Appraisal (PCA). Discussions revealed that the core programmes of the agencies did not permeate the grassroots. It was also revealed that the schemes were grossly ineffectual. It was further observed by aggregation that the schemes did not engender a better quality of life for baseline demographics since the vocational skills acquisition programmes did not translate into entrepreneurial ventures for participants. This by deduction was due to the fact that the diffusion of innovation pattern adopted by these agencies was predominantly downward and this made the participants to respond based on a bandwagon effect rather than a conviction of their innermost potentials and desires. In other words, the diffusion of innovation pattern of the agencies was vertical rather than lateral and this accounted for the predominant lack of sustainability. It was therefore recommended that the dialogic and horizontal pattern of diffusion of innovation should be adopted by poverty alleviation agencies so as to allow for collectivity of will among stakeholders. This by projection will evolve a synergistic framework that will ensure sustainability.
Keywords: Alleviation * Diffusion * Empowerment * Innovation * poverty *sustainable development.
The Effects of Suggestive Imagery in Advertising and the Consumer Behavior
Rajhi Hela and Kamoun Mohammed
The purpose of this study is to understand perceptions of suggestive advertising among Muslims living in Tunisia, to explain as well the attitude toward the advertisement and toward the brand taking into account the individual’s involvement towards the product and the moderating effects of the sex and the religion of the ad readers. The results show that one strongly influenced by the involvement level of the individual towards the product, its sex and its religious degree.
Keywords: Suggestiveness, attitude towards the suggestive advertisement, attitude towards the brand, involvement, religion.