European Journal of Social Sciences

 Volume 40 No 1
 Oct, 2013
Non-Native Speakers' Attitudes Toward Taking Non-Recommended Medicine and Comprehending English Written Medicinal Pamphlets
El Sayed Dadour and Moataz El Morsy El Negery
The present study aimed to find a linguistic solution and psychological guidance to decrease the danger of taking medicine that is not recommended by specialist physicians in communities where English is not the native language. The study investigated the attitudes of university graduates, being well educated citizens, toward taking non-prescribed medicine on one hand and toward the existence of a simplified mini bilingual dictionary that includes medical words commonly used in medicinal pamphlets. Subjects of the study were 181 university graduates of: non-medical schools (n=65); medical schools (n=35); foreign language departments (n=81). An Attitudes Questionnaire was constructed, by the present researchers; then used to collect data related to research hypotheses. Results of the study revealed that there were statistically significant differences between observed frequencies and expected ones related to the attitudes of the subjects toward both taking medicine that is not recommended by a physician, and the existence of a mini bilingual dictionary that includes words commonly used in medicinal pamphlets. The study included detailed interpretations and discussions related to such results.
Keywords: Attitudes, non-native speakers, taking medicine, comprehending medicinal pamphlets, psychological guidance, health education, health safety, bilingual dictionaries, and linguistic barriers.
Preventive Measures of Dealing with Corporate Conflicts
Olga Erahtina
The purpose of this article is to develop the system of measures to prevent corporate conflicts and to eliminate conditions under which they can arise. The process of dealing with the problem of corporate conflicts consists of a few stages. At the first stage it is necessary to retrace all conflicting interests. Then we should identify the main reason for conflict of interests in each group. The third stage deals with the general principles and techniques of resolving conflicts of each type, that have been proposed by the economic theory and the judicial practice. Finally, the author analyses the non-mandatory norms of corporate legislation and the Corporate governance code to develop proposals for formulating provisions of the charter aimed at preventing corporate conflicts.
Keywords: Corporate conflicts; imperfection of preventive system; measures for conflicts minimization; incompatible interests and goals.
A Comparative Study of Development Methodologies for Web Project: Towards a Viable Alternative
Thamer Al-Rousan, Osama Al-Haj Hassan, Shadi Al-jawarneh, Ashraf Odeh and Ayad Al-Zobaydi
Open source software development (OSSD) has evolved from being an underground movement for hackers, to become a promising option for synthesizing agile and plan-driven software development methodologies that hold most benefits of the two approaches. In this paper, we compare the agile and plan-driven software development with OSSD, highlighting its synthesis of benefits from both approaches, with unique benefits for OSSS that offer solutions to Web project development where other approaches continue to face challenges. OSSD is a significant choice due to its high awareness for client needs, low-risk methodology with low potential losses, but with potentially high return on investment. We believe that OSSD can provide opportunities for companies to improve their Web application development processes.
Keywords: Web Project Development, Open Source, Agility, Plan-Driven Software Development
New Religious Practices of Citizens: An Anastasia Movement Case Study
Yanina Grusman and Anna Sanina
The following article examines the Anastasia movement – a new occurrence in religious and social-cultural life in modern Russia. The foundation of the movement is the cult of the imaginary heroine Anastasia and her “study”, which led to the creation of “readers’ clubs” with religious meaning. The religious study of Anastasia incorporates widely acknowledged elements of Christian religious tradition, a combination of cult movements and anthropological perceptions that characterize a human as a godlike “Creator”. Based on empirical research (2004-2010), this article describes the social-demographic characteristics of the community members, the leadership structure and the religious and social-cultural practices of the clubs. The features of the socialization processes of Anastasians, born in the Soviet era, are defined as ground pre-requisites of the followers who are entering the commune and interested in Anastasia study. The Anastasia movement suggests ways to fulfill oneself that support the individual’s view of the world. The development of this type of new religious movement leads to a new understanding of religiosity in modern megalopolises involving a particular attitude toward the transcendental, which is defined by worldview, rational explanations and social-religious practices.
Keywords: Social Movements, New Religious Movements, Megalopolis Culture.
The Readability of Arabic Languages Books of the Eighth Grade in Jordan and the Concentration of their Questions on the Thinking Skills through the Analysis of their Contents
Yousef Diab Salameh Al Majali
This study aims to analyze Arabic language books for the eighth grade students in Jordan, to determine the level of readability, the degree of concentration of their questions on thinking skills. The sample of the study related to the readability of the books consisted of (660) students of eighth grade in the public schools of Education Directorate of Karak, where the students were divided into two groups, (330) students for each book. The study sample related to the analysis of the two books consisted of the all questions contained in the books. In order to achieve the aim of the study the researcher used the following tools: the comprehension test to determine the level of readability of these books, also a tool based on Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive objectives, to determine the degree of the concentration of the questions of the two books on thinking skills. The results of the comprehension test indicated that (54.9%) of the students were at the frustrational level of reading. Whereas (32.25%) of the students were at level of teaching level of reading. While (85%) of them were in the independent reading level. The study also indicated that the concentration of the book questions on the lower levels thinking skills (knowledge and understanding)has reached (65.6%). and focus questions of the book of linguistic rules and applications on lower and upper levels of thinking skills were very close, as it was for the lower level 49.9% and for the upper level 50.1%.
Keywords: The analysis of Arabic Language books, the readability levels, thinking skills).
Assessment of Transportation and Traffic Flow Pattern in Ikot Ekpene Urban, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
Umoren, V., Ofem, B. I and Akpan, I. U.
The problems of transportation and traffic flow in most urban areas have become more complex in recent times due to the high rate of urbanization, population growth and industrialization. This study focuses on the assessment of transportation and traffic flow pattern of Ikot Ekpene Urban, one of the major urban centres in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The study examines the transportation and traffic situation of Ikot Ekpene urban. The purposive sampling technique was adopted for the study and four major roads were selected. The four major roads in the study area constituted the sample frame for the study and traffic counts was conducted on these four major roads at four different peak hours of the day. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were used for the analyses. The analysis revealed that the traffic flow pattern varies on these roads, as none of these roads generate and attract the same volume of traffic. It also revealed that the volume of traffic on these roads were not determined by the width of these roads. The study revealed that the general condition of roads in the area were in deplorable state, especially the major roads. And recommend rehabilitation of the roads that are in poor condition, provision of adequate parking spaces, provision of transportation facilities etc, in the study these are required to make for the observed deficiencies.
Keywords: Traffic, Transportation, Pattern, Peakhour, Urban.
Ecological Determinants of Perceived Climate and Sport Attitudes among Young Soccer Players
Márcio L.P. Domingues, Fernando R. Cavichiolli and Carlos E.B. Gonçalves
Purpose: To investigate the context effect on the relationship between perceived motivational climate and social–moral functioning in a group of young male Portuguese football players from two contrasting clubs. It was expected that motivational climate in the social oriented club would be associated with lower levels of social–moral functioning, sportspersonship and at risk behaviors. A more mastery-oriented climate by the professional oriented club was hypothesized to be beneficial with respect to sporstspersonship and team norm perceptions. Methods: In a first phase a cross sectional quantitative study of 125 male football players (aged 13–17 years) was conducted. In a second phase, researchers followed up 74 athletes. Athletes responded to two questionnaires, one measuring different dimensions of social–moral functioning namely sportspersonship behaviors and moral reasoning; the other evaluating their perception of coaches’ motivational climate. A correlation matrix and multilevel analysis was also conducted. Results: Results show higher scores both in moral attitudes and perceived motivational climate for POC youth athletes with clear task orientation and a more pro-social acceptance of sport. Both clubs showed similar results in ego orientation which could be conducive of different ego orientations as an expression of different sporting contexts. No time effect differences were found. Conclusion: Findings illustrate the importance of studying contextual cues in order to determine motivational climate and provide an understanding of perceived coach created climate. The mechanisms that lead to a mastery oriented climate should be thoroughly examined as it poses as an imperative on youth sports development.
Keywords: Motivational climate, Youth athletes, Social Functioning, Context.
Organizational Loyalty and Commitment in Telecommunication Companies: Case of Kosovo
Nazmi Zeqiri and Faruk Ahmeti
The process of organizational reforms and changes within companies often damages employee commitment created within those companies for many years. There are many difficulties that, every company has to encounter during that process. Every change is hard for companies, thus they need exceptional commitment, in order to be able to change without damaging the company. Every change made in a working environment affects the employee commitment and loyalty. There were several studies made on privatization issues, however, most of the studies in this area concentrates on achieving financial saving and benefits. Hence, the main objective of this research was to illustrate how change (in our case privatization) of companies affects employee commitment and loyalty. After the war in 1999, Kosovo has become more open toward outside world. Kosovo’s economy was flourishing and there was only one provider for telecommunication services, a publicly owned company (POE) named Post and Telecommunication of Kosovo (PTK). Due to new competition that started to operate, PTK has lost its monopoly status and has suffered many loses. Hence, the government decided to start the privatization process for PTK. This has affected the employee commitments and loyalty within PTK as shown from results based on our research with PTK employees, whereas, on the other side, research has shown that IPKO (the second telecom provider) has less loyal and committed employees, due to stabile situation regarding changes within the company. In addition, results have shown that work characteristics have changed both (PTK and IPKO) companies, and PTK is not seen any more as the most preferable employer in Kosovo, for outside experts, status that had before the privatization started.
Keywords: PTK, IPKO, Commitment, Loyalty, Telecommunication, Employee.
The Effect of Social Responsibility Accounting (SRA) on Sustainability of Firms in Host Communities
Ngozi B. Ijeoma, Tennyson Oghoghomeh and Obada Paradise J.
This study was carried out to ascertain the effect of social responsibility accounting on the sustainability of firm in host communities. Specifically, it seeks to reveal the extent to which social and environmental contribution of firms will enhance the protection, continuity and sustainability of firms in their host community. A survey research design was used for the study to assess the extent to which enterprises perform their social and environmental responsibilities to their host community and Nigeria at large. The population of the study is infinite within the Niger-Delta environment. To determine the sample size, the researcher used Godden’s formula for infinite population sample and obtained the sample size to be 138. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection and three research hypotheses were formulated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi Square (X2) statistical tools was used in testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significant. The major finding in this study is that effective implementations of CSR activities will not only guarantee the long-term survival of firms but will also give them a competitive edge over their competitors. The researcher recommended based on the findings that in order to achieve long-term survival and sustainability, firms should report on the CSR activities in their Annual Report both in subjective and quantitative terms. It was concluded that reporting social activities especially if done annually will help firms to achieve sustainable competitive advantage.
Modern Forms of Business Cooperation: Clusters and Networks Overview
Nataliya Klimova
In this study we deliver an overview of clusters model development in leading world economies and their historical path. It was demonstrated that the existence of a strong agglomeration of firms is not the only component of the region: beyond the economic dimension, there are factors of social and cultural history which affect the community of people, values, the culture, the knowledge accumulated in the territory. The clusters’ enterprises would benefit from the other side, the elements of an economic nature such as industrial specialization, flexibility and the division of labor and the other, social and cultural integration that takes place within the community of businesses and individuals which constitute the cluster area.
Keywords: Clusters, Networks, Regional Models.
The Manifestation of Market Failure in Healthcare
Nazarova Varvara
Healthcare, like any area of human activity involving the use of limited resources of society, faces two primary objectives: achieving efficiency and fairness in the provision of medical services. As is well known, in most cases the competitive market ensures the optimal allocation of resources. However, healthcare has some distinctive features which give rise to market failure in this area, resulting in state intervention in the economic relations between the providers (hospitals and doctors) and consumers of medical services, and leads to the emergence of the institution of insurance. The economic aspects of healthcare predetermine a special mechanism for the functioning of this market, and allow us to talk of special types of competition in this sector. The aim of this article is to describe and analyse manifestations of market failure in healthcare in order to subsequently develop measures to reduce costs and increase the profitability of this area.
Keyterms: Positive externalities; “option demand”; information asymmetry; “actuarially fair” insurance; moral hazard; adverse selection.
JEL Classification Codes
P36: Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions: Consumer Economics; Health, Education and Training, Welfare, and Poverty; I1: Health
Do the Number of Tourists Arrived Affect the General Price Level of Tourism Stocks? An Empirical Evidence from Istanbul Stock Exchange
Gülfen Tuna and Ahmet Selçuk Dizkirici
Many studies analyze the relationships between Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) and macro economic variables on the assumption that all the sub-sectors of stock market may be affected from the macro economic variables at the same level; however, their reactions vary with respect to events and situations in market conditions. Therefore; new parameters are supposed to be essential to estimate the general price level for the sub-sectors. The study is the first to analyze how the general price level of tourism stocks is affected from the number of tourists arrived. It is considered to be significant due to taking the number of tourists arrived into account which is affecting the sub-sector indices but not qualified as a macro economic factor. Herein; the idea is appreciated because the relationship between tourism stocks and the number of tourists arrived is found at the end of the study. Hence; Tourism Index of Istanbul Stock Exchange representing the general price level of tourism stocks and the number of tourists arrived in Turkey series are used in the study via their 185 monthly data from the period of 1997:01 to 2012:05 to determine whether or not the number of tourists series affect the tourism index series. By applying the ADF Unit Root Test, Johansen Cointegration Analysis and Granger Causality Test; it is found out that at least a long run relationship exists between the series and the number of tourists arrived variable is observed to Granger cause tourism stocks traded in Turkish capital market.
Keywords: General Price Level, Istanbul Stock Exchange, Tourism Index, Number of Tourists Arrived.
JEL Classification Codes E31, G21
Contemporary Laos Historiography (1975-Present)
Kitirat Sihabun, Charuwan Thammawat, Att Nanthachak and Craig J.Reynold
After reforming the country into Lao People’s Democratic Republic in 1975, there are many changes in Lao with respect to the poetical and governmental form, economy, society and the rewriting of Lao history. The last issue is a very important matter since it reflects the change of thinking methods for self perception and the perception neighboring countries through the written history. This research aimed at investigating the knowledge structure assembled to be Lao historiography and factors influencing it from 1975 to the present. Research data were gathered from 37 historical documents written by 21 Lao historians. The data were analyzed by a method of content and context analysis, including an interview of persons concerning in Lao historical writing. Research result were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. The results revealed that the knowledge structure of Lao historiography in that period was written by the leaders and officials of the Lao Revolutionary Party. They wrote the history in accordance with the policy of the party and the state in the forms of books, textbooks and autobiographies. Most of contents were derived from the revision of the national culture and heroic acts of Lao heroes fighting against foreigners’ invasions. The most famous heroic act is the story of Prince Anuwong who battled against Siam to free the country from the rule of Siam. The factors affecting historiography writing came from both internal and external factors. The internal factors arose from Laos’ stability problems fight between socialism and feudalism. The external factors arose from political conflicts causing by the cold war, problems about international relationship, invasions of foreign cultures, and the flow of capitalism and consumerism. This research results can use for constructing an appropriate analytical framework of historical documents in order to understand something affecting historiography writing of each country.
Keywords: Historiography, Historical documents, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lao Revolutionary Party, Descriptive analysis
Media in the Middle East: Perception of News Credibility in Jordan Government-owned Media Versus Private Media
Azzam Elananza, Khalaf Tahat and Rana F. Sweis
The main purpose of this study is to investigate journalism students’ perceptions of media credibility in Jordan. Specifically, this paper seeks to test the difference between credibility in government-owned media and private media. A questionnaire translated into Arabic was used and distributed to a systematic random sample of 200 students at the Mass Communication department at Yarmouk University in Irbid, Jordan. The study reveals that Jordanian journalism students perceive private media to be more trustworthy than public media. Arguably, the private or independent media in the ongoing ‘Arab Spring,’ continues to play a major role in expanding the freedom margins in different countries in the Middle East compared with media operated by governments that serve only their agendas. The study has also revealed that people who generally spend more time using media tend to trust private media rather than public media. The high competition between different types of media, the advent of new technologies, and adoption of a market approach in creating media content could explain how private media employs various effective tools to enhance its communication with potential audiences and keep them engaged and follow their content for a long time. Moreover, future studies and limitations are reported.
Keywords: Credibility theory; journalism students; media in Jordan; media ownership; Middle East; perception; private media; public media.
De Gaulle’s Conception of Europe as a Promoter of French Interests
Armagan Gözkaman
Charles de Gaulle has marked a decade of the European reconstruction process following the World War II. His idiosyncratic stance vis-à-vis the latter was based on preserving the interests of his country. In this study, an attempt to explore this hypothesis will be made around four axes: His conception of a political union in Europe, the importance he assigned to Franco-German relations, an obstinate refusal of British accession to European Communities and his pragmatic approach to the Community structure.