European Journal of Social Sciences

 Volume 39 No 1
 July, 2013
The Effect of Price Elasticity on Demand for Electricity Consumption: Empirical Evidence from South Africa
Teboho Jeremiah Mosikari
Electricity is one of the most important aspects in the modern world economy. It is now considered as an efficient tool for promoting economic activities of the country. Since last three years Eskom in South Africa is experiencing a severe electricity crisis. It is thus imperative to examine the price elasticity of aggregate demand for electricity consumption in South Africa. The study uses the popular time series models for the period spanning 1980-2010. The findings provide that there is evidence of long-run cointegrating relationship between price electricity and its aggregate consumption for the period of investigation. Also in the short-run it indicates that there is a negative insignificant relationship between price elasticity and electricity consumption.
Keywords: Price elasticity, Electricity Consumption, Cointegration, Gross domestic product
Model of Relationship Marketing on Professional Services: Empirical Study on Independent Surveyor Services Industry in Indonesia
Sufrin Hannan, Budi Suharjo, Kirbrandoko and Rita Nurmalina
The service industry currently protected by the government to impose restrictions on the activities of foreign independent surveyor services companies to operate in Indonesia, planned in 2015 the government will open the widest possible market for foreign surveyor companies to operate in Indonesia so the inspection service be open to foreigners. Based on the background mentioned above, this journal is the beginning of a study that aims to understand the main factors that determine customer loyalty in the B2B professional service industries independent surveyor in Indonesian coal. This study will analyze the effect of service quality, customer value, expectation, satisfaction, trust, sharing information, relationship bond and customer characteristic of customer loyalty in the customer service industry in Indonesia independent surveyor. Scope of service activities, are independent surveyor on inspection services activity and the quantity and quality of coal are traded between sellers and buyers for export purposes. Research conducted on independent surveyor service users in particular Coal mining company as producer, exporters, traders and buyers. This study categorized as quantitative research conducted by a review of the literature, the concept of empirical research and understanding of the research object. Work plans and research processes arranged systematically, starting from literature, industry-review, interviews and ends with the formulation of the research results. SEM analysis aims to test and statistical models in the form of causal models. SEM analysis is based on the analysis Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), a method that combines the correlation analysis, regression analysis, path analysis and factor analysis.
Keywords: Relationship Marketing, Perceived Quality, Information Sharing, Trust, Switching Barriers, Relationship Bonds, Loyalty
A Model of the Integration of Health Knowledge and Wisdom in a Self-Reliant Community: A Case Study of Ratchathani Asoke Community
Pechtawan Thanaroong, Suree Thrumikaborworn and Chirawat Vejpas
This study aimed to develop a model of the integration of health knowledge and wisdom of a self-reliant community through the examination of such a community at Ratchathani Asoke. Data were collected by qualitative methods, involving interviews, observations, and field notes. The study found that the community integrated Buddhist teachings into health knowledge and their way of living called Boonniyom, a lifestyle characterized by simplicity, unselfishness, volunteering, and harmony with nature, and transferred their experiences to others through actual practice. The study found that the factors related to the integration of health knowledge and wisdom were individual’s spiritual development, changes in paradigms, a leader with moral integrity, members’ participation, and the existence of families and religious, school, residential, and working facilities in the same compound with members living and working together on a sharing and supporting basis.
Keywords: Integration, Knowledge, Wisdom, Health care, Self-reliant community.
Problems of Innovation Project Commercialisation during the Early Stages of Development (An Example of a Russian Region)
Mikhail Nazarov and Eduard Fiyaksel
This paper presents the results of an empirical study of the problems of regional innovation projects in the early stages of development. The study is based on a series of interviews with investors, experts, and representatives of technology transfer centers in a Russian region (Nizhny Novgorod), carried out in March 2012. The main identified challenges are the following: poor quality of the commercial vision of projects submitted to investors, an inability of the innovation teams to use the services of professionals to assess the market, and the lack of necessary competencies of technology transfer centers in the commercialization of projects.
Keywords: Early stages of development, regional innovative project, technology transfer office, interviews with experts, problem of commercialization.
Analyzing the Morphological Structures of the Mysticism in Navodir al-Vaqoye (The Singular Events)
Fatemeh Asad
The elementary samples of the modern thought have been created in the works of significant writers of Middle Asia, in the second half of the nineteenth century, and the beginning of the twentieth century. At that time, in addition to Turkestan and Russia, there were two more centers; Bukhara, and Kabul. Kharazm was placed behind these two cities before that time. The reforms were applied more, through London, Istanbul, Cairo, and more by the use of Persian periodical on Bukhara, and Kabul.In order that the Tajik Persian literature, finds national characteristics, the growth of modern prose had special significance in the first two decades of the twentieth century. In prose, especially in the creatures of some agents of the Bukhara literature, a procedure became strong, the similar sample of which was called education training by the realist Russian literary scholar. Some of the Tajik researchers, have attributed the work of Ahmad Donish, Navodir al-Vaqoye, to the realism of theological training- it’s more correct to know the literary parts of which separate from the philosophical parts and sometimes in the philosophical parts. Ahmad Makhdum Donish, the great Tajik scholar and writer is one of the best figures in creating the literary, philosophical, and social works, in the second half of the nineteenth century in Bukhara. In addition to state his pioneering thoughts and activities, which have been very effective in the national and thought awakening of many intellectuals of that time, in this study, the writer has tried to show the morphological structure of the mystical expressions as well as their great influences in the thought and versions of the Navodir al-Vaqoye Book. Although, more works should be written in this field, the writer hopes to be able to have an entrance to the mystical area, by writing this short article. The present article, is in fact a brief dictionary derived from the thesis, which is designed and written according to the derivation of some of the mystical expressions and their explanations. Of course, it should be stated that about there are some explanations about this book, and its subject as well as the meaning of mysticism.
Keywords: Ahmad Donish, Navodir al-Vaqoye, term, mysticism, theosophy.
Portrayal of Conflict and Communal Harmony in the Popular Newspapers of Tamil Nadu
T. Joseph Benziger and V. Sundareswaran
The Mass Media is always a unique identity of any modern society. A strong relationship exists between the growth of mass media and social change. But the degree and direction of this relationship is still under research. New communication technologies allow journalists to gather and disseminate news all around the world at very high speed. The digitalized news industry telecasts the real time images of conflict to the world audience almost instantaneously. It is believed that Media contents have strong association with conflict and harmony in the society. Many types of media, ranging from targeted communication for social change to independent blogs, may influence peace building. Media can play a role in all stages of the conflict: from pre-violence to post conflict reconstruction. This Paper intended to study the portrayal of conflict and communal harmony in the popular Newspapers of Tamil Nadu with special reference to Madras High Court Police –Lawyer conflict.
Keywords: Communal harmony, Conflict, Media, Journalist, Newspaper.
Hospitals Ranking Based on Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Approach and Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) Techniques; Case Study: Hospitals of Boushehr
Parviz Hajiani, Saeedeh Nateghinia and Reza Jalali
Introduction: Health Care industry has dedicated a great amount of gross domestic and economic product. Meanwhile, hospital as the most important center of health care services plays an important role society’s well-being. Evaluating and giving ranks to hospitals can lead to an increase in rivalry in industry and finally result in further efforts of hospitals in order to present better services and general health in the state. This research seeks to introduce an approach for giving ranks to hospital on the basis of BSC. Methods: In this research, after identifying 69 elementary criteria for giving ranks to hospitals of Boushehr province, with investigating about aspects of subject, Fuzzy experiment was applied. Then, using multi-objective decision making techniques and according to identify criteria, the hospitals of Boushehr province were ranked. Results: Research results show that aspects of treatment and the client (patients) are of more importance in comparison to the other aspects. As compared with the other hospitals, the hospital Shahrivar 17th of Borazjan has shown a better performance. Conclusion: The exhibited model can be used for evaluating and giving ranks to hospitals on the basis of BSC approach containing 5 aspects of client (patient)- growth, development and learning- financial- organizational, managerial and human resources and treatments.
Keywords: Hospital, BSC, Ranking, Multi-objective decision making.
Influence of Selected Demographic Variables on Work-Family Conflict Strain Experience among Commercial Bank Employees in Nigeria
Leonard I. Ugwu and Dorothy I. Ugwu
The study investigated the influence of selected demographic variables on work-family conflict strain experience among commercial bank employees in Enugu state, Nigeria. Four hundred and seventy-seven commercial bank employees participated in the study. Two instruments were used to gather data for the study. They are: the adapted 6-item Health-Related Work-family Conflict Inventory (HRWFCI) developed by Carlson, Kacmar and Williams and the Key Informant Interview Schedule (KII) that was developed by the researcher. Results showed that long serving employees experience more work-family strain than their short serving counterparts. Results also indicated that there were no significant differences between male and female; between married and unmarried, and between senior and junior employees on work-family conflict strain experience. Further analyses of the data item by item showed that the source of work-family strain experience is from home domain. The paper closes by discussing how employees’ long exposure to negative work features could exacerbate stress effects rather than alleviate them.
Keywords: Work-family conflict, Strain, Demographic variables.
Mercenaries in International law
Zaid Ali Zaid
In the modern world, corporate rather than individual players are becoming more involved in various conflicts in particular and the execution of warfare in general. Almost everywhere one goes these corporate actors are playing roles that are similar to or even greater than those undertaken by national armies. And while there are international laws in place to govern the activities of these corporate players, most of the laws are specific to mercenaries, leaving out others such as private military firms. In essence, international law has tended to focus so much on mercenarism and very little on private military firms, a state of affairs that has left these private military firms to operate almost unregulated as they are neither mercenaries nor national armies. While an investigation of the legal status of private military firms has to be commensurate with an analysis of international mercenary law, there is need for specific laws to govern private military firms in particular to be put in place. It is in view of this that this paper critically examines the governance of mercenaries and private military firms in current international law; arguing that the current international legal instruments have not fully addressed the issue. As a result, a number of recommendations for improvement have been suggested.
An Optimality Theoretic Constraint Analysis of Stress in Northern Jordanian Arabic
Mohammad Alghazo
This paper presents an Optimality theoretic constraint analysis of stress placement in Northern Jordanian Arabic (NJA). The data was analyzed in detail to determine the properties of the Northern Jordanian Arabic stress system. These properties were subsequently interpreted by means of Optimality Theory. The major conclusion is that stress placement follows a coherent system of ranked constraints that exists for NJA words. These constraints account for a very high percentage of the observed data. It is shown that stress is attracted by the penult, but super-heavy final syllables may attract stress to the final syllable. To arrive at the constraint ranking of stress placement the syllable structure of NJA was also introduced.
Health Sector Reforms in Ghana: A Review
John Poku, Godfred M. Aawaar and Thomas Adomah Worae
Purpose: This paper reviews health sector reforms in Ghana and identifies the nature, trends and success of such reforms.Substantial literature on the subject of health sector reforms have focused on the developed economies, providing varied approaches to help meet key objective of access, efficiency, equity, and responsiveness to users at least cost. Methodology: The study is descriptive in nature. The authors employed interviews and document analysis to review the health sector reforms in the Country. Findings: The authors discovered that, though several reforms have been launched in Ghana with intentions to improve efficiency and service delivery at least cost for more than two decades, not much has been achieved. Lack of political will to stick to reforms and allowing decentralisation to take its course has been realised in this study as a major cause for the inability of health sector reforms in Ghana to record significant achievements of intended purposes. Practical Implication(s): The current health sector reform which saw the implementation of a national health insurance scheme is already bedevilled with numerous challenges and has been predicted by many to fail if strategies are not changed or modified. Essentially, many residents still do not have access to quality health care.
Keywords: Descriptive Research, Document Analysis, Review, Health Sector Reforms.
The Politics of Human Rights: Understanding its Nature with Reference to the Politics of Human Rights in Bangladesh
Md. Kamal Uddin
The politics of human rights is a broad issue. There is a log debate to understand the politics of human rights. The philosophical, religious, moral and theoretical basis of human rights has given the shape to realize modern human rights diplomacy. The politics of human rights has become highly significant in the sense that the modern state is obliged to guarantee human rights of the citizens. Human rights are also one of the most powerful determinants of foreign relations. This paper aims to elucidate the philosophical and theatrical knowledge of the politics of human rights in general. Finally, the paper highlights the level of human rights politics in Bangladesh in the context of explaining human rights violation in the hands of government machinery.
Keywords: Human Rights, Politics of Human Rights, Human Rights Violations, and Government Machinery.
REM (Rapid Eye Movement) and NREM (Non-Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep - A Literature Review
Habibollah Naderi and Mahmood Moradi
This paper is a review of literature on sleep. First, it describes sleep in general and then it discusses different types of sleep i.e. NREM and REM. Initially, it introduces them in general terms and then in detail describing the features and phases of NREM sleeps as well as the features of REM sleep. Finally, it presents a summary including the key points of the paper.
Keywords: REM, NREM, Rapid Eye Movement, Non-Rapid Eye Movement.
Structure and Performance of a Lifelong Learning Framework in Thailand
Piriya Pholphirul
Enhancing workforce skills and increasing innovation is part of Thailand’s strategy to move to a more knowledge-intensive, creative economy that would generate higher incomes and reduce poverty. This paper analyzes various contexts and constraints of the lifelong learning process in the Thai education system, which in turn shape the economic and education policy challenges facing the country as it strives toward equitable, ideas-led growth. Even from the outset, in pre-primary education that aims to create the foundation for skills development in early childhood, some Thai children suffer from iodine deficiency, which erodes their intellectual capacity and negatively affects their learning and productivity in later life. In addition, even though the country has achieved nearly universal coverage in basic education, ensuring that children attain a quality basic education remains a challenge, as illustrated by relatively weak student test performance. Furthermore, developing job-relevant skills through both vocational education and higher education is unbalanced. These imbalances may emerge from the existing labor market’s information constraints and from incentive distortions and capacity constraints in the education and training systems. This, in the end, causes shortages of basic and technical skills in the labor market.
Keywords: Education Structure and Performance, Lifelong Learning, Thailand
The Impact of Anticipation and Preparation for Retirement on Retirement Confidence
Mohammad In'airat
This study investigates the relationship between anticipation\preparation for retirement and retirement confidence via face to face interviews from 1174 employees out of them 1083 were on job employees of Pakistan Railway conducted in October 2011.This exploratory study suggests that there is a correlation between proximity to retirement and retirement confidence. Proximity has a negative relationship with retirement confidence. Confidence in government programs has a positive relationship with retirement confidence. All these results are statistically significant thus providing rigor and generalizability in research.
Keywords: Older workers, Retirement, Retirement Expectations, Retirement Confidence.
JEL Classification Codes: J14, J26.