European Journal of Social Sciences

†Volume 38 No 2
Perceived Influence of Teratogens on Prenatal and Postnatal Life of Human Beings
Mary B. Nwoke
The study investigated the perceived influence of teratogens on prenatal and postnatal life. Participants were eighty-one medical professionals: twenty medical doctors, eleven males and nine females, age range (28-56) years, with a mean age of 42 years; sixty- one nurses, sixteen males and forty-five females, age range (20-54) years, with a mean age of 37 years. Participants were selected from a university teaching hospital in Enugu, Nigeria, using snowballing technique. Teratogen Effect Scale (TES) developed by the researcher was used. Results showed that teratogens have significant harmful effects on the life of human beings F(1,78)=207.9 P<. 0001. Also gender difference was significant F (1, 78\)=49.5 p<. 0001. The implication of teratognic effects on the life of human beings was discussed.
Keywords: Teratogens, prenatal and postnatal life.
Causes and Implications of the Recent Spanish Financial and Debt Crisis on the European Monetary Union
Sherine El Hag
The paper attempts to discuss what really triggered the recent crisis in Spain, its causes, symptoms, and implications. The paper also discusses whether there is divergence between Spain and the Euro member countries as a major cause for its crisis. Toward this end, a trend analysis of many economic variables has been analyzed for Spain from 1999 till 2012. The analysis reveals that Spain crisis resulted from some internal problems; namely, the real estate bubble that burst causing a financial crisis and increase in its public debt as a percentage of GDP. Also, Spain problem has resulted from other factors including the inability of the ECB to implement the Maastricht convergence Criteria, increasing disequilibria in fiscal situations, and loss of market competiveness. It is suggested that Spainís current crisis might lead to significant negative impact on Eurozone countries and that the looseness of maintaining the Maastricht criteria might not be help in absorbing the crisis.
Keywords: Spain Crisis, Europe Financial and Debt Crisis, EU Convergence Criteria, Euro
Analysis of the Attitudes of University Students towards Statistics According to their Departments and Gender
Dilek Altas, Selay Giray and ÷zlem ErgŁt
The aim of this study was to analyze whether the attitudes of the students taking statistics courses varied according to the department they are enrolled in and according to their gender. Data used in the study was collected using Statistics Attitude Scale (SAS) questionnaire on the students enrolled in Faculty of Economics at Marmara University. Firstly, Factor Analysis was applied to the collected data and 4 dimensions were obtained. These factors were termed as anxiety, conceptual importance, contribution and willingness. It was found that these sub-dimensions, which have a high internal consistency, were consistent with literature data. Using factor scores obtained from factor analysis application, Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and t test were used to determine whether the attitudes of the students towards statistics varied according to the departments they are enrolled in and according to their gender. Findings obtained from the analyses were interpreted and it was observed that the attitudes of the students studying English Economics significantly varied from those studying in other three departments. It was found that female students had more positive attitudes towards statistics than males. In addition to this, means of factor scores were compared on the basis of departments and it was observed that the students studying Econometrics had more positive attitudes towards statistics.
Keywords: Statistics Attitude Scale, University Students, MANOVA, Factor Analysis, t Test.
Professional Development: Its Nature and Implication for Botswanaís Senior Management Teams
Luke Moloko Mphale and Mavis B. Mhlauli
The importance and purpose of professional development of teaching staff in Botswana has taken a new fold in recent years since the inception of the Revised National Policy on Education (1994). This article articulates some of the ways in which teachersí professional development activities in Botswana secondary schools have changed over the years and how this change has affected the roles of the school management team (SMTís) in its quest to provide quality education. The article further discusses literature related to teachersí professional development basing on how the Senior Management Teams (SMTís) can use and appreciate certain models and frameworks to provide effective professional development. Implications of change for the Senior Management Teams are also delineated. In this article, the authors recommend that collaborative team work and involvement of teachers in the planning of their professional development initiatives will enhance teacherís professional and personal growth.
Keywords: Professional Development, Senior Management Teams, Revised National Policy on Education, Models and Frameworks.
The Role of Viewing Highlight Videotape upon the Game Performance of First Division Basketball Players
Mazin R. Hatamleh and Omar S. Hindawi
Modern developments in the field of sport psychology along with technological advances in videotaping procedures have produced many new techniques in performance enhancement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of imagery rehearsal through viewing highlight videotape of the offensive field goal performance over the competitive athletic basketball season. Subjects were (n=5) male first division basketball players were chosen to participate in a single-subject multiple- baseline-across individuals design. The offensive field goal percentage for each player was calculated throughout the entire regular season of (14) games. Each player percentage of the first seven games was collected and graphed to establish a baseline of field goal percentage prior to the interventions. The offensive field goal percentage of the next seven games that took place with the intervention was compared to the baseline field goal percentage for a measure of size of effect. Results showed a positive change in overall field goal percentage with average increase for all subjects, and time scoring of (50%) or better in games played. Subjects expressed positive attitudes about the use of highlight videotape to enhance skill performance and mental readiness. Researchers recommend for further studies using video technology to facilitate the opportunities for performance enhancement and encouragement to athletes through these tapes making it beneficial.
Keywords: Highlight videotape, Mental Rehearsal, Field Goal
The Difficulties Faced by English Language and Literature Students at Mu'tah University in Mastering English Language Pronunciation
Hadeel Adayleh
The graduate students of English Language are expected to master the four skills of the language; writing, listening, reading and speaking. However, students face difficulties in comprehending the language pronunciation despite attending specific courses such as pronunciation and phonetics. The goal of this research is to map out the difficulties faced by English Language and Literature Students at Mu'tah University in mastering English pronunciation. It also aims to shed light on the efficiency in language production of foreign language learners. This is a qualitative study examining 20 English Language and Literature students at Mu'tah University, who particularly have attended courses in Pronunciation and Phonetics. There is also an interview conducted with one of the teaching staff who is experienced in teaching FEL. It appears that the problem is mainly reported in issues like sound recognition, connected speech, and the relation between spelling and sounds. This is clearly noticed when examining their performance in English. Fore example, they fail to assign stress properly and reflect content by intonation. They may even change sound quality. Mistakes in pronunciation that hinder meaning or change it are classified as bad pronunciation. Therefore, the study recommends serious reconsiderations for the course, syllables, methodology, and materials for those used in teaching English Language pronunciation.
Keywords: Good pronunciation, Bad pronunciation, Sound recognition, connected speech.
Alcohol effect in the Society: Study on the Active and Passive poor victims in Tamilnadu
B.Balasubramanian, R.Srinivasan and S.Vaidhyasubramaniam
Alcohol consumption in India can be traced to ancient period, when alcohol was consumed as a ritual. During the subsequent invasions of the Mughal and British, alcohol was easily accessible and a drink of interest to different social groups. However the social restrictions all along had a check on the alcoholisation of the society. The recent trends portray an alcohol menace the society is combating through, especially due to problem drinkers. It is obvious to note that the family economy is getting drained by the alcoholics and the women become passive victims of this menace. There is enough literature pointing to the evil effects of alcohol in the society. In states like Gujarat, Nagaland, Mizoram and Manipur there is a legal prohibition for alcohol sales. Tamil Nadu, a state in the Southern part of India too had a complete prohibition for alcohol since 1937. However in order to counter the sale of illicit country liquor (arrack) Ďa locally produced popular but dangerous mind depressant drink targeting the poorí, the then Tamil Nadu government lifted the prohibition intermittently from 1970ís and since 2003 involved directly in to entire distribution of IMFL (Indian Made Foreign Liquor) in the state. Today the revenue from sale of liquor contributes substantially to the government treasury in Tamil Nadu. The aggressive efforts of the Tamil Nadu government in promoting alcohol business have been widely criticized by various sections citing the ill-effects it has caused to society. Alcohol related data for India is currently scarce. This study determines any difference in the perceived quality of life between alcoholic and non-alcoholic landless agriculture laborerís family in Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu.
Keywords: Alcohol, Agriculture Laborer, TASMAC, Life Quality, Alcohol and Society
The Effect of Some Physical Fitness Elements (Flexibility) on Body Action
Ibrahim Abdul Ghani Salameh, Nart shooka and Sadiq Alhayek
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of some physical fitness elements exercises on body Action (trunk, shoulders, and legs muscles). Experimental approach was employed utilizing pre-test Ė post test technique. Purposeful sample, consisting of 25 physical preparation students from different sections of college of physical education and sport sciences at the Hashemite University in Jordan, was selected. Exams and flexibility exercises employed in the study were tested for validation. Results indicated that there was a positive effect of different types of flexibility exercises as a whole on increasing the flexibility of shoulders and legs. However, there was no significant effect of flexibility exercises on increasing the flexibility of trunk muscles.
Assesment for the Improvement of Teaching and Learning of Christian Religious Knowledge in Secondary Schools in Awgu Education Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria
Ilechukwu Leonard Chidi
For the achievement of planned educational goal, there must be a continuous planned process of identifying, gathering and interpreting information about the performance of students. Education process always device a way of generating and collecting evidence of achievement, evaluating this evidence, recording the findings and using this information to understand and assist the studentís development in order to improve the process of learning and teaching. Assessment is thus a vital aspect of any education process. Therefore this paper, ďAssessment for the improvement of Teaching and Learning of Christian Religious Education in Secondary School in Awgu Educational zone of Enugu State, Nigeria, has the purpose of determining the roles assessment in improvement of studentsí learning of Religious Education in Awgu Educational Zone of Enugu State Nigeria. The specific objectives were: to determine the extent the teachers have used assessment to improve studentsí learning of Religious Education and to determine how assessment has helped students to improve in their performance in Religious Studies. The research employed a survey plan. Questionnaire was used in the collection of data. The stratified random sampling were used to select the schools while sample random sampling was used to select the subjects. The number of respondents used were five hundred (500) comprising two hundred (200) teachers and three (300) students. Weighted mean and standard deviation was used in data analysis. The findings of the study include that through assessment: teachers make judgement about how students are doing in religious studies, provide guidelines which help students to improve in their knowledge, understanding and skill in the subject. The research also established that through assessment: students identify relevant information to the questionnaire and assignment; recall relevant information in religious education and express it in a coherent form and link different elements of religious curriculum in their studies. The study recommends constant assessment of the aims and learning outcome of the studentsí to identify essential learning.
Keywords: Assessment, Teaching and Learning, Christian Religious Knowledge, Education, Enugu State
Investigating Omani Postgraduate Students' Learning Experiences and Communicative Needs
Rahma Al-Mahrooqi and Victoria Tuzlukova
This paper reports on a qualitative study that explored the challenges faced by Omani postgraduate students who stay on at their home university, and how they cope with them. Also investigated were the skills and competencies these students need to succeed academically and, eventually, in the workplace. The respondents were 12 Sultan Qaboos University students - 3 males and 9 females Ė in every case working for a masterís or doctoral degree. All Omanis, they have chosen their alma mater because of resource availability, academic staff and training quality, national relevance of their research, family advice, low study costs, and scholarship availability. They face diverse challenges adjusting to this level of study, and eight themes have emerged around aspects of their learning experience and skills development. For example, they tend to seek help and support with time management, critical thinking, and written and oral communication, all of which are linked to such other skills as data and information presentation, team work, interpersonal relationships etc. Further assistance is recommended to help them with adjustment to and success in their programs.
Keywords: Postgraduate studies, SQU postgraduate students, communication skills, skills enrichment
Leadership Frame Preference of Jordanian Schools Principals' as Perceived by their Teachers: The Bolman and Deal Four Frames Model
Aieman Ahmad AL-OMARI
The four frames of leadership development by Bolman and Deal (1991) used in this study to identify the leadership frames of schools principals in Jordan as perceived by their teachers. Results of study revealed the preferred leadership frames for the schools principals in order of preference were structural, political, human resource, and symbolic. Related to participants gender; there were significant differences between male and female in the preferred leadership frames of schools principals', the favor was for male participants. There were significant differences among the three groups of experience years (low, medium, and high) in the Structural, Human Resource, and Political leadership frames. Future research on school leadership and leadership frames research were recommended.
Pervasiveness of Workplace Bullying: An Empirical Study of Different Sectors of Pakistan
Uzma Mukhtar and Saubia Ramzan
Workplace bullying is embedded in the organizational histories since long but researchersí interest in workplace bullying has flourished over the latter part of the past decade (Thomas, 2005). Bullying is 3 times as prevalent as illegal discrimination and at least 1,600 times as prevalent as workplace violence. WBI (2011) identify that while only one employee in every 10,000 becomes a victim of workplace violence, one in six experiences bullying at work. Bullying is a little more common than sexual harassment but not verbal abuse which occurs more than bullying. Despite to its frequency of occurrence, it is most neglected phenomenon in the realm of employment relations laws. The fundamental problem associated with bullying is that it is unrecognized set of behaviors which takes time to come at visible level. Rayner (1997) highlights in a survey that 53% of the respondents have identified the workplace bullying with 78% witness to be happened with others. This study identifies the fact that term ďBullyingĒ is familiar in the advanced and developed countries. Conversely, in the developing countries like Pakistan it is an emerging issue. But there is confusion between harassment and bullying. People cannot differentiate it from harassment. Although Bullying is present in every organization in shape of negative remarks, backbiting that degrade one personís personality and image in front of specially those persons who do not know the bullied person him/herself personally, yet there is little familiarity of difference between harassment and bullying. People cannot differentiate it from harassment.
The Incorporeal Unit as an Element of Occurring the Criminal Complicity
Hasan ALTarawneh
Crime may occur by one person without the participation of any other, while a number of people may participate in committing this crime. These participants may participate all intentionally in bringing up the physical acts that constitute the crime, and then each one of them is asked as if he had committed the crime alone, as each one is considered a principal perpetrator in the crime as long as they all had the intention to participate in order to bring it into existence; other people - intentionally Ė may commit acts that are not considered of the physical elements of the crime, but they are serious and important at which it would not be possible for the perpetrator to commit his crime without them, as if a person intervened and gave the perpetrator a weapon or tools or guidance which help to commit the crime; It is also conceivable that the criminal cooperation takes another form which is incitement to commit a crime, as when someone incites another person to commit a felony or a misdemeanor.
Quality of Work Life of the Jute Textile Mill Workersí in the Context of Jute Industry Reclaims its Lost Glory
Tanusree Chakravarty Mukherjee
The notion of quality of work life is a contemporary framework for the organization to enable its employees to accomplish holistic well-being without jeopardizing the economic stability of that organization. The global work culture has transformed radically as the conceptual dimensions of organization enthused towards a new paradigm. The concept of Quality of work life has often exemplified as a parameter of quality of individual experiences congregated in working environment. This paper endeavor to study the received and perceived quality of work life of the jute textile mill workers, especially, when the Jute industry has a probability of reclaims its lost glory in accordance with the global environment protection awareness. Moreover, the primary objective of this study also to investigate the extent of influence of the eminent socio-economic indicators on the workersí perceived overall satisfaction. For this purpose, convenient sampling technique was deployed to select 200 respondents from District of North 24 parganas of the state of West Bengal of India. The inferential statistics of this experiential study delineated no significant association between the overall satisfactions with socioeconomic variables for this marginalized community, perhaps dissatisfaction revealed regardless of their demographic profile. Hence, the findings of this empirical study may be beneficial for coherent policy prescriptions and by reinforcement of that may aid to sustain this sector as well as Indian economic scenario at macro level.
Keywords: Quality of Work life, Holistic satisfactions, Jute Textile Industry of India, Economic prosperity
Entrepreneurial Quotient: A Strategic Asset for Personal Branding
Asha Alexander and Areej Al Shamrani
Since the turn of the century female entrepreneurship in the Middle East has been gradually gaining momentum by leaps and bounds. There is paradigm shift from traditional role to women empowerment. This research aims to study the impact of demographic factors on attributes of entrepreneurial quotient in university female students of Saudi Arabia. Further it also develops self-awareness through self-assessment of personal strengths and weaknesses with respect to attributes of entrepreneurial quotient. Students benefit by having their entrepreneurial quotient defined and clarified to foster personal branding. This research will be a value addition in Saudi scenario as it will help universities integrate awareness of attributes of entrepreneurship quotient into the program through self-assessment and developmental exercises. Need for achievement is considered to be one of the core attributes of entrepreneurial quotient among female students of University College. Results show significant impact of demographic factors; age and educational level with attribute risk taking propensity and also demographic factor, GPA and attribute self-sufficiency of entrepreneurial quotient under study.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial quotient, Demographic, Attribute, Personal branding