European Journal of Social Sciences

 Volume 38 No 1
 April,2013
The Jordanian Anti-Trafficking Law: Some Notes
5-18
Lina A. Kh. Shabeeb
 
Abstract:
In 2009, Jordan made a notable progress in combating human trafficking by signing the UN Convention on Transnational Crime, joining the Palermo Protocol and issuing the Anti-trafficking Law. This is considered an important step in establishing an effective system for prosecuting this crime, one of the three essential P’s in combating this problem: prosecution, protection, and prevention. It is also a step in a long path for curbing this crime and removing its mal-effects. The questions posed here are: whether or not this Law, with its current wording, sufficient enough to establish the legal base for human trafficking prosecution; and whether or not it is, with the punishment provided therein, deterrent enough for the prevention of human trafficking. There are some gaps in this Law that do not considerably reduce its efficiency, yet, demand significant attention. There is room for improvement, and the sooner it takes place the more effective this Law will be.
Keywords: Human trafficking, the Palermo Protocol, prosecution of human trafficking, criminalization, forced labor, participation in human trafficking
 
 
Journalistic Framing of News on Climate Change
19-24
G.C. Prem Nivas I. Arul Aram
 
Abstract:
Climate change is a serious threat to the humans. However, the level of public engagement on this issue is less compared to other issues. Less engagement may be due to the poor understanding of climate science or the feeling of disconnection of the people in some way with news articles. A journalist’s role in addressing the issue of climate change accurately plays a crucial role in public understanding of climate science. Since journalists are working in a high pressurised environment, their biggest challenge is staging climate change news stories. This paper identifies some of the research findings from peer reviewed journals that will help the journalists in doing effective news framing on climate change.
Keywords: News Framing, Climate Change, Media Coverage, Global Warming, Journalist.
 
 
The Relationship between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Achievement Motivation in a Sample of Iraqi Students Living In Jordan
25-34
Fatima Eid Zaid AL- Adwan and Majed Mohammad Al – Khayat
 
Abstract:
The current study aims at exploring the relationship between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and achievement motivation in a sample of Iraqi students living in Jordan. The study sample consists of 90 male and female students. The study instruments (questionnaire and interview) have been developed to measure students who still suffering PTSD. Consequently, the study findings reveal that they are a presence of a number of disorders, which are still the students suffering, despite the passage of almost ten years of refuge to Jordan, this disorder include (shock events restoration, trying avoid event, hyper arousal, emotional and psychological reactions, Physical Symptoms, weak social participation, and positive aspects). Furthermore, there are significant statistical differences in the study sample about PTSD of females was higher than males. In addition, there is no statistically significant differences in PTSD among students depending on the changing's place of residence of the student from the viewpoint of the students themselves.
Keywords: Stereotypical image, Gender, University students, Jordan.
 
 
The Visualization of the Exploratory Schools in the Capital Amman for the Concept of the Community School
35-44
Mohammad Saleem Al-Zboon
 
Abstract:
The study aimed to the visualization of the exploratory schools teachers in the capital Amman for the concept of community school from their perspective and its relation with some variables. To answer the questions of the study , study tool was distributed to members of the sample which includes from (342) teachers, and a questionnaire has been improved which consists of (36) paragraphs, and a proper statistic methods were used to analyze the information, and the study reached several results such: that the visualization of the exploratory schools in the capital Amman for the concept of the community schools came in a high level and there is no differences with a statistic significance for the degree of practicing that attributed to sex and qualifications. There is a difference with statistic significance that is attributed to the variable of experience, and those differences came for the benefit of the individuals whom their experience ranges between (10) years and more. In the light of the results a set of recommendations were given including: the adoption of the generalization of the concept of the community school and activate it in all schools, to develop the partnership between the school and the community.
Keywords: (community school, the exploratory schools).
 
The Degree of Mobile Usage by the HU Students for Educational Purposes
45-58
Jebreen A. Hussain, Khalil Qraeen and Reem Al Matari
 
Abstract:
This study is aimed at investigating the degree of mobile usage by the HU students for educational purposes, and studying the effect of certain variables such as: Gender of the student, his major in high school, and his academic level. A survey was carried out with a sample of 443 male and female students chosen randomly from ESF. A comprehensive and reliable questionnaire was designed. The result showed a moderate degree of mobile usage for educational purposes. However, there were no significant differences at (a =0.05) in the results regarding gender of high school and student’s academic level. To answer questions from the study means and standard deviations, percentages, ANOVA and T-test were used. The study concluded with a list of recommendations concerning the subject matter.
Keywords: Degree of student usage, Mobile learning, Hashemite University, Educational purposes.
 
Undergraduate Students' Level of Need for Cognition and its Relation to their Meaningful Cognitive Engagement: A Framework to Understanding Students' Motivation.
59-65
Ahmed F. Al-Alwan, Mamdouh M. Ashraah and Ismail M. AL-Nabrawi
 
Abstract:
This study aimed at identifying the level of need for cognition (NFC), and explored the differences between students with high need forcognition and students with low need for cognition in meaningful cognitive engagement. Additionality, it examined the relationship between need for cognition and meaningful cognitive engagement among unergraduate students. University students (N= 361) completed the Need for Cognition and Meaningful Cognitive Engagement Scales in the academic year 2012/2013. Results showed that the level of need for cognition was high. Also, results showed that students with high need for cognition more meaningful cognitive engagement than students with low need for cognition. NFC was found to be significantly and positively related to meaningful cognitive engagement.
Keywords: Need for Cognition, Meaningful Cognitive Engagement, University Students.
 
 
Telecentre for Whom? Analyzing Community Participation in Akshaya e-Centres in Kerala
66-77
P.V. Sangeetha and I. Arul Aram
 
Abstract:
Telecentres are public access points that are used as a tool to bring the benefits of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to the rural communities. They are considered as the agent of change as they have the potential to lead the rural community to economic and social development by providing them ICT access at cheaper and quickest way. Yet many telecentre projects are partially successful in bringing down the fruits of ICTs to the community in its fullest. One major drawback is the minimal importance given to community participation in the telecentre process. This paper analyzes the level of community participation in Akshaya e-centres, a telecentre project in Kerala, India. It also analyses the structural and functional factors which limits the community participation in the e-centres. The study found out that the community participation is passive and limited to receiving or using the e-centre services. The top down institutional structure and one way communication strategy are limiting the opportunity and right of the people to engage in their own development. Therefore, the paper calls for participatory communication to remedy this defect.
Keywords: Community participation, telecentre, ICT, Akshaya, Kerala.
 
 
Religious and Non-Religious giving in Thailand: An Economic Perspective
78-86
Amornrat Apinunmahakul
 
Abstract:
Understanding religious and non-religious giving in Thailand will help us to comprehend the role of Buddhism on social reciprocity which is a necessary condition for policy recommendation to enhance the participatory development of Thai citizens. The study found that attending religious services on a regular basis does make people become more generous to both religious and non-religious contributions indicating the influence of Buddhism on socioeconomic development of Thailand. Highest educational achievement plays a major role on both money and time contributions. Education thus is a means not only to human capital formation but also to implanting the social reciprocal value to young generations. In addition, while government spending on religious boosts up the religious contributions, it in turn lessens the non-religious giving. But the level of an individual social capital significantly increases individual’s time volunteers to both religious and non-religious organizations. Government hence may consider diverting some of their religious spending towards community-based social capital accumulation by financing community activities that could enhance the civic participations. Furthermore, policy makers should encourage people to follow news on a daily basis to make people become aware of social needs. The accuracy and reliability of social media thus have an indirect influence on social reciprocity.
Keywords: Money and time contribution, Religious and Nonreligious giving, Social Capital, Participatory development
 
 
Stock Price, Sentiment and Trading Volume Volatility
87-99
Osamwonyi, Ifuero Osad and Tafamel, Ehiabhi Andrew
 
Abstract:
This study examines the influence of investors’ sentiment and trading volume volatility on stock prices with Nigerian capital market data. Using 430 days (covering a period of January 2,2009 to March 8,2010), the study shows that investors’ sentiment and trading volume volatility significantly and positively impact on stock prices, and that the relationship is bi-directional. This study therefore contributes to the growing evidences [especially in developing economies] of the role of sentiments in stock price predictability.
Keywords: Stock Price, Sentiments, Trading Volume, and Volatility
JEL Classification Codes: G12, G14, D03
 
 
Scale and Proportion in Complicity and Resistance Postcolonial Feminist Analyses
100-105
Khadijah Bawazeer
 
Abstract:
This paper argues that the analyses of complicity and resistance in postcolonial feminism in Britain risks being biased and segmental unless it takes into consideration the scale and proportion of women’s complicity with the colonial powers or resistance to them. I contend that the degree of acceptance or rejection of the Empire’s mainstream discourse (s) is not uniform among all women. However, these powerful discourses limited women’s scope of resistance. Some women voluntarily identified with the Empire abroad and adopted a male persona or an a-gendered stand. Some were coerced into needing affiliation with it; such women typically used proximity with a native topos or people to get employment by the Imperial apparatus. Other women unwittingly affiliated with the empire either directly or indirectly. This resulted in discrepancies in many women’s narratives that look resistant on the surface but are complicit at a deeper level of the text. Hence, in order to conduct analyses that are not biased, layered comparative enquiries, of as many variables as possible, are imperative. Such analyses call for theories that do not focus on objectionable issues like truth-value but rather on enabling interpretation such as the model of compound structures.
Keywords: Scale, proportion, postcolonial feminism, resistance, representation
 
 
An Overview of the Formation of Electronic Contracts under the Jordanian Electronic Transactions Law
106-116
Enas Qutieshat
 
Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to highlight the formation of electronic contracts under the Jordanian Electronic Transactions Law number 85 of 2001. This Law consists of forty-one articles covered by seven chapters. It covers the following topics: electronic records, electronic signature, information letter, transferable electronic deed, electronic money transfer, authentication certificate, and penalties. Generally speaking, being part of the Civil Law system, Jordan has embodied rules that are related to the formation of contracts within its Civil Code n. 43 of 1976. This article will examine whether the rules that are related to the formation of paper-based contracts should vary from those applicable to online ones. It will also present an overview of the relevant rules set by the Civil Code and the Electronic Transaction Law.
Keywords: E-contracts, electronic, contracts, e-offer, e-acceptance, intention, Jordan, click-wrap, browse-wrap, intention.
 
 
Current Mode Hysteresis Control of Split Capacitor Type Elementary Additional Series Positive Output Super Lift Converter
117-125
T.S. Saravanan, R. Seyezhai and V. Venkatesh
 
Abstract:
Super lift converter is a new series of DC/DC converter possessing high voltage transfer gain, high efficiency, reduced ripple voltage and current. Super lift technique armed by split capacitors increases the output voltage in higher geometric progression. This paper focuses on splitting the input side capacitor of the additional series positive output super lift converter and output response is controlled with a current mode hysteresis control. The current mode hysteresis control proves to be more effective than voltage mode PI control especially when dynamic tests are applied. Hysteresis control designed to regulate the converter against line side and output impedance variation. Simulation study of the proposed converter along with the controller has been carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK to investigate the static and dynamic response of the converter. Proposed current mode control response of the converter is compared with voltage mode control.
Keywords: Split type Elementary Additional Positive Output Super Lift Converter (SEPOSLC), Hysteresis Current Mode Control (HCMC).
 
 
Impact of Hydrocarbon Concentration on the Alteration of Internal Tissue of Egeria Radiata (Lamerck) Galatae Paradoxa (Born) Donacidae in a Part of Cross River, Nigeria
126-131
E.E. Ewa, A.P. Ekanem and A.I. Iwara
 
Abstract:
In West Africa Rivers such as the Cross River in Nigeria, Egeria radiata, a benthic fauna species is a source of income and first class protein to the growth and development of the human body. The effect of hydrocarbon pollution on the alteration of the internal tissue of E. radiata is novel in the literature. The goal of the study was to examine the impact of hydrocarbon concentration on the alteration of internal tissue of Egeria radiata (Lamerck) Galatae Paradoxa (Born) Donacidae in a Part of Cross River, Nigeria. The stratified sampling technique was employed to collect species of E. radiata ranging from juvenile, sub-adult to adult. Tissues of selected E. radiata species approaching mortality at different levels of hydrocarbon concentration were used for histopathological analysis. Result of histopathological analysis revealed normal cell distribution at 0ppm, but, several cell destructive processes were observed with increase in the toxicant (12ppm to 30ppm). Major cell damage as a result of tissue hyperplasia and cell erosion was observed with 48ppm concentration. The study revealed that high concentration of hydrocarbon in habitat water of E. radiata resulted in death principally as a result of their low migratory tendency
Keywords: Tissue Alteration, Hydrocarbon Pollution, Egeria radiata, Histopathological Analysis, Cross River
 
 
The Impact of Culture in Strategic Management at Commercial Banks in Jordan From Employees' Perspectives
132-141
Salama Nawafah and Mozfi Al-Amyan
 
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of employees in commercial banks in Jordan towards the impact of culture on strategic management in commercial banks in general and the Arab bank and Islamic bank in Jordan in particular, and it aimed also to know the effect of gender, experience and job title of the employees on their attitudes. To achieve the aim of the study a questionnaire was distributed among 350 employees (160 males and 190 females) working at two commercial banks: Arab bank and Islamic bank. The questionnaires were collected and data were analyzed statistically using suitable statistics. Results showed that there are statistically significant differences in the employees' attitudes towards the impact of culture on strategic management in commercial banks in Jordan: Arab bank and Islamic bank, it also showed that there are statistically significant differences at (a= 0.05) in the employees' attitudes towards the impact of culture on strategic management in commercial banks in Jordan due to the gender variable, and there are statistically significant differences at (a= 0.05) in the employees' attitudes towards the impact of culture on strategic management in commercial banks in Jordan due to experience variable and job title variable.
Keywords: Commercial Banks, Culture, Jordan, Strategic Management
 
 
Policy Networks – A Dialectical Perspective Toward the Case of Khwae Noi Dam Project
142-155
lsares Sunsaneevithayakul
 
Abstract:
In this study, the article illustrates a fourfold contribution to the literature on policy networks in general and the study of Thai public policy in particular. Firstly, it provides a perspective on policy networks emergence and formation from the context of a developmental state – a novel empirical investigation. Secondly, it develops a dialectical model of policy networks, following Marsh and Smith (2000), which it successful assimilates and applies to the Thai policy environment. Thirdly, it investigates the claim that policy networks are increasingly used by developmental states as a mode of governance for pursuing national development goals. And fourthly, it applies the dialectical model to Thai irrigation policy - The Case of Khwae Noi Dam Project. It is observed from the case study evidence that policy networks play a fundamental role in state building activities in Thailand and are thus the site of conflict between different conceptions of the public goods. The article identifies the emergence of new developmental policy networks in Thailand which reflect changing power relations at the core of the Thai state.
Keywords: Policy Networks, Dialectical Approach, Thai Irrigation Policy