Self Help Groups in Cross River State, Nigeria
Uwem Essia, Peter N. Mba, Margaret Ebokpo, Nsa Ekpo and Awuken Obajiaj
|The Impact of Company Capabilities on Competitive Advantage: Applied Study on Pharmaceutical Industry||477-493|
Achieving a competitive advantage position relative to its business rival is what organization in particular should be aiming for. Despite the importance of attaining competitive advantage in organizations, there has been limited study on the relationship between organizational capabilities and the way firms are organized to achieve competitive advantage.
This study examines basic capability factors that may influence achievement of competitive advantage in the Jordanian Pharmaceutical Industry.
Drawing on relevant literature, the author empirically tested the relationship between study variables on a sample of 410 employees from 18 Jordanian pharmaceutical companies and their branches. The study findings indicate that customer relationship, innovativeness, and product development have a positive influence on the achievement of competitive advantage, while supplier relationships has no effect on the achievement of competitive advantage.
The findings of this research have important implications for business practitioners companies of industrial products. Limitations of the study are considered, and future research directions are identified. Keywords: Customer Relationships, Supplier Relationships, Product Development, Innovativeness, Competitive Advantage.
|The Effect of the Sample Size and the Number of Test Items on the Difficulty and Discrimination of Items using Item Response Theory (IRT)||494-506|
|Hussein Al-Oshaibat, Sabri Al Tarawneh and Ong Saw Lan|
|Abstract: This study aims at exploring the effect of the sample size and the number of test item on the difficulty and discrimination of the item using Item Response Theory (IRT). The population of the study consisted 630 participants registered in 101 English Language Course at Muítah University for the summer academic semester 2010/2011. The findings show that the means of difficulty coefficient of items answered by the examinees on an exam with items are greater than the means of the items difficulty coefficient answered by examinees, that the number of its item is lesser. The findings also showed that the means of items difficulty coefficient of the test answered by the greater number of the examinees were greater than the means of items difficulty coefficient of the test answered, by the least number of the examinees. Finally, some recommendations were suggested and discussed. Keywords: Coefficient of Items, Item Response Theory, Discrimination|
|An Analysis of the Demographic Factors that Influences the Socio-economic Status Levels of Households in Namibia||507-517|
|Innocent Maposa, Evidence Simbarashe Matangi, Victor Katoma, Jan J. Swartz and Musa Gabere|
|Abstract: This study examines the household demographic factors and how they influence the socio-economic status levels of the households in Namibia. While most studies have used income and expenditure to define household socio-economic status levels, in this study we use the different household characteristics and assets to derive a wealth index which works as a proxy for household socio-economic status. The 2009/10 Namibia Household Incomes and Expenditure Survey (NHIES) data was used. Principal component analysis technique was used to create the asset index. The multinomial logistic regression model was estimated based on this data with the socio-economic status levels being the quartiles, that is, first level (poorest level) being the first quarter and the highest level (richest) being the last quarter hence base outcome level. The results from this study show that in all the wealth levels main language spoken in the household, education, age and sex of household head as well as location (urban or rural) significantly influence and relates household to the likelihood of being in one level of wealth as compared to being in the base outcome level. Inequality tendencies were also observed for location (rural/urban), sex and main language spoken in the household for all wealth levels. Keywords: Socio-economic status, principal component analysis, multinomial logistic regression|
|The Perception on Political Marketing in Jordan||518-532|
|Rand Irshaidat and Tareq N. Hashem|
This study aims to measure the level of awareness and the perception of political marketing in Jordan. The researchers employed the experimental approach in conducting the study and the consequences of this approach of statistical analysis of data collected for the field study. The population of the study comprises Jordanians who are allowed to vote. Questionnaires were distributed over a random sample that amounted to (500) respondents, (445) questionnaires were collected, that is (89%) of the total sample. The researchers found that there are positive attitudes toward political marketing as a concept.
There are positive attitudes toward using political marketing functions in Jordan. There are no differences in attitudes toward using political marketing functions in Jordan concerning the (gender and Age) of respondents. There are differences in attitudes toward using political marketing functions in Jordan in reference to the (level of education and income) of respondents. Consequently the study generates the pyramid bellow which summarizes the importance of the political marketing functions as perceived by the Jordanian voter. The study suggests that the concluded pyramid to be treated as a point of departure for political parties when launching their campaigns in Jordan. Keywords: Political Marketing, political marketing mix, Political Marketing Functions.
|WTO and International Trade and Globalization with Special Reference to Jordan||533-545|
|Ali Khaled Qtaishat|
|Abstract: The world's rich nations have long preached the advantage of free trade for the world's developing nations. But it simply has not been a level playing field. This in-depth piece shows how and why. The author argues that the free trade regime is often rigged against the developing nations. Globalization which is reflected in the current WTO regime has been introduced to basically serve the interest of existing global economic powers. This current state of economic inequality has caused resentments all over the world especially in the developing countries. The developing countries have framed laws which are directly challenging the global WTO regime. This has further resulted into a sort of deadlock over many important international trade issues1. Globalization process has of late suffered multiple hindrances, leading to the widening of gap between pro and anti globalization forces. Therefore this study is trying to discuss the viable and equitable working of international trade from the global perspective. Keywords: Globalization, WTO, International Trade, TRIPS, Jordan|
|Guidelines for Hospital Development to Support Health Tourism in Phayao, Thailand||546-558|
|Krit Phanpanya and Suriya Somchan|
The objectives of this study were to study readiness of health tourism hospital for supporting Thai tourists in Phayao province, to investigate Thai touristsí needs for health tourism service and to seek for guidelines of health tourism hospital development for supporting Thai tourists. In Phayao province, the potential health tourism hospitals from both government and private sector for supporting Thai tourists were Phayao Hospital, Phayao Ram Hospital, and Chiang Kham Hospital. The population was 400 Thai tourists travelling into Phayao province. Data collection was conducted through the structured interview and the questionnaire regarding the readiness of health tourism hospitals for supporting Thai tourists in Phayao province. Data was analyzed by Windows for frequency, percentage and deviation.
With regard to the summary, most Thai tourists visiting to Phayao, they were 41-50 years old female and get married. The employers paid for their medical treatment. They came to the hospital by themselves and it spent less than 1 hour per time. As for their purposes for coming to the hospital, there were check up and having massage. They received the hospital information from their relatives and families. Overall, the Thai touristsí needs for using health services at Phayao Hospitals affected the 6 levels of the Thai touristsí needs for using health services in Phayao Hospitals at a high level ( =3.86 ) When regarding to the place, it showed that the facade of the hospitals were clean and tidy. This affected the level of the Thai touristsí needs at the highest level. ( = 4.22) With regard to the environment, there were no dust and smokes which produced the trouble to the community and this affected the level of the Thai touristsí needs at the high level. Regarding to the organization management, the hospitalsí responsibility to the environment/nature affected the level of the Thai touristsí needs at the high level ( = 4.02) With regard to the services in term of the specialists, it affected the level of the Thai touristsí needs at the highest level ( =4.23).With regard to the promotion that providing the distribution of 5 different food groups in accordance with the principles of nutrition affected the Thai touristsí needs at the high level ( = 3.87). Regarding to the follow-up and evaluation in case of the customerís appointment for after services affected to Thai touristsí needs at the high level ( = 4.08), in respectively. Keywords: Development of health tourism clinic
|A Principal Component Analysis to Identify the Green IT Factors that Impact ERP Adoption in Indian Small and Medium Enterprises||559-582|
|S. Vijayakumar Bharathi, R. Raman and Dhanya Pramod|
|Abstract: This paper identifies and explains the impact of certain pre-determined Green IT factors in each of the five ERP adoption phases namely Planning, Acquisition, Implementation, Usage & Percolation and Extension for small and Medium Enterprises (SME) during an ERP investment decision. This exploratory study identified thirty four critical factors with relevance to Green IT practices throughout the five decision phases, tested on a sample of forty nine SMEs operating in the Auto-Component Cluster in Pune, India. The responses from SMEs indicate their interest in adopting Green IT practices during ERP adoption. Based on the principal component analsyis and interpretation of results from all these five phases, twelve principal components emerged. This componentized set will be a good useful reference for decision-makers of SMEs to identify, anticipate and analyze the relevance of Green IT in ERP adoption for their organizations. Keywords: Green IT, ERP adoption, SME, Planning, Acquisition, Implementation, Usage & Percolation and Extension|
|The Effect of a Group Counseling Program in Reducing Stress and Improving Self-esteem of Gifted Students||583-596|
|Naifeh Hamdan Al Shubaki, Naji Minwer Al Saaiedeh and Ahmad Mohammad Badah|
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a group counseling program in reducing stress and improving self-esteem of gifted students. The population of this study consists of all (100) tenth grade students in the Jubilee school.
The sample of this study consists of (40) students were chosen randomly from the students who a chive high score in stress scale and low score in self-esteem scale. The experimental group consisted of (20) students who received a group counseling program of (8) sessions; one session each week which lasted (60) minutes.
The Control group consisted of (20) students who were not exposed to the group counseling program.
The results of (ANCOVA) showed significant differences in reducing psychological stress and improving self-esteem among the experimental group students compared to the control group.
The results also indicated that there were no significant differences between gender and the counseling program in both of the psychological stress and level of self esteem. Keywords: Group counseling program, stress, self-esteem.
|Legal Regulation of the Profession of Engineering||597-608|
|Mamdouh Mohammad Al Resheidat|
|Abstract: In this paper I shall discuss the legal regulation of the engineering profession through the statement of the concept of professional associations, and the concept of profession and professionalism, and then the engineering profession ,the engineer, the professional engineer, and organizing the practice of the profession in Jordan and legal protection for the title of engineer, then the conditions for acquiring the legal description of the engineer, and what are the rights and duties of the engineer, and finally disciplining the engineers.|
|Parental Choice: Influence of Educational Marketing Mix Elements||609-620|
|S. Kumaraperumal and B. Rajasekaran|
|Abstract: India steadfast in its effort to improve the literacy rate of its huge population through many governmental policies and upward trend is steadily continues, however the educational quality has been questioned in the international market (business line, 2004). When ease in access to the world increase, customers show different types of buying behaviour and processes (Jeannet and Hennessey, 2004).This study intend to measure the desire and attitudes of parents while choosing the children school. The research was carried out in a developing city (Erode) in Tamil Nadu through survey method. This research will focus on major influencing factors employed by parents during their decision making process of a primary school choice in Tamil Nadu in relation with elements of services marketing mix. The research reveals that working and middle class families want to maximise their utilization by rationalising the choices. The research brought out program and process as dominant influencing factors in parental choice. Keywords: Parental choice, School education, service marketing mix and Tamil Nadu|
|An Evaluation of the Way Political Parties Wiew Pre-Elections in Turkey||621-627|
|Abstract: The issue of political representation in Turkey dates back to the times prior to the proclamation of republic, which had started during the reign of Sultan Mahmud II and accelerated with the administrative reforms in 1839. In the Republican Era, with the actual rise of competitive elections in 1950s, political representation has become increasingly more important.Particularly with the transition to multi-party period, although there was no specific law that systemized the operation of political parties, the first legal arrangements were exclusively made in 1965 with the Political Parties Act in addition to the existing provisions of the 1961and 1982 Constitutions and this was followed by the Political Parties Act of 1983, which is still in use today. Even though the Political Parties Act stipulated that parties carry out pre-elections in relevant electoral districts with the participation of all party members, in order to increase their mobility, they either chose to make shift in the regulation by means of temporary articles or sought to loosen the clauses regulating pre-elections in the law. In this process, regulations concerning candidate nomination procedures have generally been left to the initiative of party statutes. At the final step, authorized party councils make decisions within the framework of their party statutes on what nomination methods to be used. The scope of this study is made up of how political parties view the pre-election system, which will assist the development of democratic system in Turkey and directly help political parties to sit upon better grounds. Keywords: Democracy, Political Parties, Candidate Nomination Procedures, Pre-election.|
|Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership of Academic Leaders in Jordan Universities||628-638|
|Ziad Lutfi Altahayneh and Mo'een Ahmad Oudat|
|Abstract: The purpose of present study is to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence of academic leaders in Jordan universities and their transformational leadership style. A total of 106 academic leaders from four public universities in Jordan participated in this study. They completed a translated version of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire developed by Avolio and Bass (2004) and Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (Schutte et al., 1998). The results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. In addition, the results showed that emotional intelligence and its different dimensions were significant predictors of transformational leadership styles. The full prediction model accounted for 33.5% of the variance in transformational leadership of academic leaders in Jordan universities. Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Transformational Leadership, University, Higher Education, Jordan, Academic Leaders.|
|The Long-Run Stock Returns Following Initial Public Offering||639-649|
|Nareerat Taechapiroontong, Chiraphol N. Chiyachantana, Theerawat Pinta and Chirasak Chiyachantana|
|Abstract: This study investigates long-run performance of Thai initial public offerings (IPOs). To examine the long-run performance of Thai IPOs, we compute buy-and-hold abnormal returns and cumulative abnormal returns for two years after the IPOs. We find strong evidence of long run underpricing in Thai market. Specifically, the average buy-and-hold abnormal returns and cumulative abnormal returns are 64.5% and 18.4% respectively. However, our multivariate analysis does not indicate a strong relation between long-run underperformance and firm-specific factors, such as firm size, firm age, investment banker reputation and firm profitability. Keywords: Initial Public Offerings; Long-run Underperformance; Market Efficiency; Stock Exchange of Thailand|
|Customerís Intentional Value on Environmental Influential Factors and their Personal Orientation towards Urgency of Rectification Ė An Empirical Investigation||650-659|
|Nalini Palaniswamy and Muruganandam Duraiswamy|
|Abstract: This paper aims to describe and analyze the conflicting situation of human and nature. The environmental destructing factor was given a scale of urgency and the study was proposed with an objective to find the consumers intentional value on environmental influential factors and their personal orientation towards urgency of rectification. Of the 625 respondents constituted from rural and urban population of the sample area was given due consideration and the results presented in the paper are empirical and it was from the primary data source .Thus this article provides a valuable insight on the personalization of the environmental factors by the respondents which will be an necessary input for the corporates, bureaucrats and other NGOs to prioritize and act on this alarming issues. Keywords: Environment, Consumer Environmentalism, Green Products, Customer Intention|
|Welfare Implications of Water-Stress in Semi-Arid Rural Settlements of Borno State, Nigeria||660-672|
|Rafiu Olalekan Yusuf|
|Abstract: Water-stress in semiarid areas has negative consequences on the welfare of rural dwellers because most of their livelihood and household activities require water. This study examines these issues among rural dwellers in Borno State. The objectives of the paper are to determine the water-stressed population in the study area, examine spatial pattern of water stress on the wellbeing of the people, and evaluate the coping measures for water stress among the rural inhabitants. Data were collected through questionnaire from a systematically sampled 630 respondents in 9 local government areas from Borno north and south. Data were analyzed through simple descriptive techniques while Z-score was employed to delineate the pattern of water-stress. Major findings of the study include: ecological and policy factors are the triggers of water stress. The welfare implications of water-stress are declining farm productivity (60%), reduced livestock/fish production (18.7%), diseases and infection (17.3%) and physiological discomfort (4%).About 65 of the respondents are water-stressed and the variation is disproportionately tilted towards Borno north as revealed by the Z-sore. Coping with water stress include praying to God, migration, buying water and collecting water from dug-out beds of dry streams. The conclusion is that water stress in the sampled settlements has a serious grip on the welfare of the rural people hence urgent policy intervention is required. Policy recommendations are: participatory water resource management, rainwater harvesting and encouraging self-help approach to water provisioning. Keywords: Water-stress, welfare, rural settlements, semi-arid, Borno state, Nigeria.|