Self Help Groups in Cross River State, Nigeria
Uwem Essia, Peter N. Mba, Margaret Ebokpo, Nsa Ekpo and Awuken Obajiaj
|Determinants of Automobile Exports in Turkey||320-327|
|Nurcan Metin and Sudi Apak|
|Abstract: In this study, multilayer perceptron artificial neural network was used in order to identify the determinants of automobile export in Turkey between 2002:1 and 2012:4, and as a result of the sensitivity analysis, automobile production was identified to be the most significant determinant, followed by interest rate and exchange rate respectively. Keywords: Determinants of automobile export, automobile production, interest rate, exchange rate. Jel Codes:|
|The Effect of Leader-Member Exchange Quality to Organizational Justice and Employee Turnover Intentions||328-344|
|Cihan Seçilmis and Mehmet Kasli|
|Abstract: This research aims to identify whether the conceptual model is a valid model that is thought to explain the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX), organizational justice, and employee turnover intentions. The study also aims to reduce the cost of hiring new employees in tourism organizations by putting forth a model explaining the employee turnover intentions. The findings of the study were collected through a survey. In the form of the survey, the criteria were leader-member exchange (LMX), organizational justice, and employee’s turnover intentions. The data were collected from 166 employees who work at 4-and 5-star hotels in Kayseri, Didim, Balikesir, and Eskisehir. The conceptual model was tested by using validity, reliability, multiple regression, and structural equation model. The findings revealed that the conceptual model is a valid model. However, the relationship between LMX and employee turnover intentions is caused by organizational justice, which is different from the literature. According to the findings, it can be suggested that tourism organizations should give importance to organizational justice in order to decrease employee turnover rate. It is also considered that the rate of the employee turnovers could be reduced by the development of organizational justice in a positive way. Keywords: Leader-member exchange, organizational justice, turnover intention, tourism|
|The Survey of the Mediating Role of Job Values and Job Satisfaction among Islamic Work Ethics Variables and Organizational Citizenship Behavior||345-355|
|Ali-Reza Mogholi, Seyed Reza Seyed Javadin, Seyed Ali Akbar Ahmadi and Azadeh Alavi|
All over the Islamic countries, faith power and its influence on individuals life process is clear. It means that although the view of human being to work is raised from ones faith in important affairs of good organization ethics, neither makes him satisfied with working nor it has any effect on improving organizational ethics. In other similar studies, faith is one of the work ethics factors having a positive effect on citizenship behavior and it reduces the stress.
According to the important role of Medical Sciences University of Iran on improving the health level of the society and establishment of ethical principle culture, especially with the Islamic perspective in these organizations, the current study aimed to investigate the effect of Islamic work ethics on organizational citizenship behavior by considering job satisfaction and job values to increase the knowledge and develop human sciences. A comprehensive model is designed to use these principles in Isfahan Medical Sciences University. Most of the studies performed selected a non-Islamic approach, but in the current study, an Islamic approach is considered. To achieve the significance of the relations between the variables, the results of the model were applied. In a general comparison, it was defined that the highest indirect effect on citizenship behavior was hard working in job among the exogenous variables (faith, religious responsible behavior, hard working in job, healthy and humane relations in work place). None of the variables (job values, job satisfaction) had indirect effect on citizenship behavior. Keywords: Islamic work ethics, Organizational citizenship behavior, Job satisfaction, Job values
|Cost-Effectiveness of the Fight against Corruption in Universities: Implications for Marketing Education in Nigeria||356-364|
|Ekpenyong E. Ekanem and Aniefiok O. Edet|
|Abstract: Cost-effectiveness of a project in any organization suggests that costs could change as hiring and usage patterns differ. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating cost-effectiveness of the fight against corruption in universities and its implications for marketing education in Nigeria. The study was designed to provide baseline information for solving the problem of corruption in order to plan, price, promote and distribute university education. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design in Cross River State as a study area. Four research questions and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the study while the related literatures were reviewed. Sample sizes of 1300 members of staff of two universities were drawn from the staff population using stratified random sampling technique. Researchers’ constructed instrument was used to collect information from the respondents. Data was statistically analysed using percentage, frequency distribution, mean and Chi-square statistics. Results obtained revealed that the cost-effectiveness of the fight against corruption met the objective of the universities for marketing education. Therefore, it was recommended that management of the universities should be product oriented in order to provide the right mixture of quality and cost for their economic survival. Keywords: Marketing, Education, Cost-effectiveness, corruption, universities|
|Influence of Perceived Family Support on Ethical Behaviour of Nurses in the South Eastern Nigeria||365-376|
|Gabriel C. Kanu, Barnabas E. Nwankwo Tobias C. Obi and Sampson O. Elom|
|Abstract: The study investigated the influence of perceived family support on ethical behaviour of nurses. Two-hundred and eighty six (286) nurses. Two-hundred and eighty six (286) nurses (181 unmarried and 105 unmarried) comprise of (156) from Bishop Shannahan hospital Nsukka and (130) from Niger Foundation Enugu. The King, Mattimore and Adams (1995) Family Support Inventory for Workers, and the Ethical Behaviour Questionnaire developed by the researchers were used in collecting the data. One hypothesis was tested, viz: perceived family support will not significantly influence the ethical behaviour of nurses. Regression analysis was used to test the significance of the hypothesis. The result showed that perceived family support significantly influenced the ethical behaviour of nurses. As perceived support from family members increases, the ethical behaviour of nurses also increases (ß = 0.62, P<.001). The findings and implications were discussed based on the theoretical and empirical back ground and on the Nigerian socio-cultural realities. Keywords: Family Support, Emotional Sustenance, Instrumental Assistance, Ethical Behaviour, Eastern Nigeria, Nurses.|
|Evaluation of Socio-economic Status of Households and Identifying Key Determinants of Poverty in Bangladesh||377-387|
|Md. Mohsan Khudri and Farzana Chowdhury|
|Abstract: Given the changing dimensions and emerging new forms of poverty, this study aims to evaluate living standards and socio-economic status of Bangladeshi households through constructing an asset index and identify key determinants of poverty in Bangladesh using the data extracted from 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). Principal component analysis was applied to 72 dichotomous variables (owning the particular item or not) including ownership of durable goods, housing characteristics, and access to basic services to create the asset index. Remarkable progress in basic services which include availability of electricity, source of drinking water and sanitation facilities as well as housing characteristics provided the evidence that overall condition of households was improved in 2007 relative to 2004. Ownership of land and dwelling made of cemented floor, roof, and wall indicated positive impact on socio-economic status of any household whereas poor source of drinking water, sanitation facilities and dwelling made of low quality construction materials had negative impact on the index. Using logistic regression model, a set of demographic variables such as division, type of place of residence, own land usable for agriculture, highest education level and employment status were identified as key determinants of poverty. The results also revealed that ownership of agricultural land, having higher education reduce the likelihood of being poor whereas rural and unemployed people were more prone to poverty. Keywords: Poverty, Asset Index, Principal component analysis, Socio-economic status, Logistic regression model|
|Culture of Silence among Parents against Children Sexual Abuse||388-398|
|Lubna Gudeh Akroush|
|Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the culture of silence among Jordanian parents against sexual abuse of their children. The sample of the study consisted of (399) father and mother from Amman city. The findings of the study showed that there are significant statistical differences in the Reponses of the sample regarding the people who abuse children sexually as strangers came in the first rank followed by friends and family members, while (Don’t know) category came in the final rank in the favor of females. Meanwhile all other variables such income and scientific qualifications have no effect on parents knowledge about people who may abuse their children and there are no significant statistical differences attributed to gender and income between fathers and mothers regarding the source of knowledge. Meanwhile there were differences attributed to scientific qualifications for those who hold secondary degree and post graduate degree as their knowledge came from media such as newspapers and radio in the first place. The researcher presented several recommendations.|
|Visual Documentation in Saving Cultural Heritages: Hasankeyf Case, Turkey||399-407|
|Murat Bayazit, Sedat Cereci and Olgun Atamer|
|Abstract: Historical and environmental valuable residues are sometimes inevitably in danger of being partially or completely destroyed within the scope of some energy policies. This generally occurs by the effects arising from incorrect positioning of hydroelectric power plants. These structures are being settled on areas which are invaluable in sense of cultural heritages. As a consequence of this, cultural wealth of civilizations are destroyed and finally lost. One of the most significant place as an example of this destruction is Hasankeyf, Turkey. The region has witnessed many historical events such as wars, migrations, invasions and also crucial inventions which have changed course of the history, but it will be flooded by basin of Ilisu Dam which is an integrated project with Cizre Dam within the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP). Although there are still numerous attempts to save historical heritages of Hasankeyf, there is no progress about its desperate situation. At this point, visual tools such as photography and film play a big role in saving historical heritages which should be left as a legacy of history and nature to the future generations. They, at least, can convey the soul and facts of the region. In this study, Hasankeyf is given as an example in order to evaluate the importance of visual documentation of cultural heritages. Keywords: Historical heritage, Visual documentation, Hasankeyf.|
|The Effects of Economic Strategy in Preparation for the AEC: A Case Study of the Temporary Checkpoint of Ban Huak, Phu Sang District, Phayao Province||408-416|
|Silawat Chaiwong and Raksi Kiattibutra|
|Abstract: The objectives of this research were to study the effects of economic strategy in preparation for AEC in Phayao province and to find the adaptation guidelines for the economic strategy in Phayao province in preparation for AEC. The population and samples were 6 representatives from government sector and 8 representatives from the residents living in Phayao province. Data collection was done through a constructed in-depth interview by purposive sampling. The findings were summarized into 4 issues as follows; 1) In terms of agriculture; it was found that Phusang area was connected the Lao People's Democratic Republic in the east. The two countries have collaborations in commerce, investment, and tourism. The tourism route was connected through Lao People's Democratic Republic, the south of the People's Republic of China and Vietnam and developed to be Indochina commercial gate. Most area in Ban Huak Sub-District was valleys and suitable for agriculture. All the crops were used for consumption not for business. 2) In terms of commerce; it was indicated that Lao people have used Phusang route for carrying their products to Chiang Kham District so all the shops along the route could not do any business as a result. After the regulations of the checkpoint were changed; Lao people could enter to Chiang Kham District so they took the opportunity to buy various products and sell their products without the middlemen even though they had to waste their time and vehicle expenses. Moreover, they did not have to pay for the custom duty even the products bought from Thailand less than 1,000 baht 3) In terms of the investment; it was found that after Thailand becomes Asean Economic Community, the effect was more positive than negative. According to Phusang area was covered with valleys and the area was limited so the people invested in the agricultural products in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. As soon as Thailand enters to the AEC, many investors will invest in Thailand definitely. 4) In terms of tourism; Phusang area was the route to Phu Chee Fah so there was no effect for the tourism in Thailand but it was effective to the transportation to Lao People's Democratic Republic. The tourists could not stay for many days due to the changing of the contemporarily checkpoint’s regulations. Besides, the government office had arranged the places and had trained the villagers for profession and had hoped that the villagers could sell their products to the tourists. Now, the places were abandoned and all the home stays also destroyed the landscape. Apart from the effects of economic strategy in preparation for AEC in Phayao province, the followings were the adaptation guidelines for the economic strategy in Phayao province in preparation for AEC; 1) As for the Agriculture, the people should be promoted and supported for the living in accordance with the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy. The following were also developed such as organic farming, the water resources and agricultural transportation, the potential of agricultural organization, including the entrepreneurs, storing, transformation and packaging system for adding values for their agricultural products, including marketing and public relations system. The evaluation should be done continuously and closely. Besides, let the people participate in planning the most so they would value highly toward all the things they had done. 2) As for commerce, the limitation of international commerce should be decreased. This leaded to the adaptation and connection of the economics in Thailand and in between the countries. The business should be developed creatively; reinforcing the entrepreneurs by taking their wisdoms to increase the products’ value. The collaboration between the government sector and private sector should be promoted in order to push forward the economical community products aiming for building up the community’s strength and the community’s careers according to the area’s capability. Besides, selling reasonable products should be also promoted. 3) As for the investment, the logistics should be developed for serving the commerce and investment with the neighbors. The agricultural products should be also upgraded, including the connection of commerce and investment. Besides, the entrepreneurs’ potential should be developed for preparing the AEC free trade. 4) As for the personnel in tourism and hospitality, they should be developed continuously includes building the tourism network. The followings should be also improved such as the restoration of the tourism based on the cultural conservation and sustainable natural environment, facilities and management system with the collaboration of the community and other sectors, the border crossing’s facility and its system, telecommunication network, information technology for tourism and E-commerce. Keywords: The effects of economic strategy, Preparation for the AEC.|
|The Labor Market and Output in Bangladesh: Does Okun’s Law Stand Still?||417-426|
|Md. Mahmudul Hassan and Kamal Hossain|
|Abstract: Unemployment, an important macroeconomic problem plays a crucial role in developing economies. High unemployment gives signal that labor resources are not being used efficiently. Hence, targeting full employment should be a major macroeconomic aim of any government. In macroeconomic literature there is a well known premise called Okun’s Law, which states the negative relationship between unemployment rate and real GDP (or economic growth). The core purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between unemployment and real GDP considering Bangladesh as a case study. The sample covers annual data from 1972/73 to 2009/10. This paper examines whether there exists an Okun type relationship between this two macro variable in Bangladesh economy. The empirical results show that the negative relationship between output and unemployment is present. And there is no long run relationship between economic growth and unemployment. Keywords: Okun’s Law, output gap, cointegration, Granger causality|
|Common Practice Errors Related to Lexical Items in English-into-Arabic Translation||427-441|
|Mohammad Atawi Saraireh|
|Abstract: This paper tries to provide an account of some errors in the practice of English-into-Arabic translation with regard to lexical items. The sets of data referred to in this paper were gathered from different sources, mainly, practical courses in the MA program in translation at Yarmouk University, TV documentaries, and some subtitled movies. The researcher found out that the errors could be related to several reasons, some of which are: translators’ incompetence in the source and/or target languages and their cultures, incompetence in the subject field, inconsistency with technical terms, and source language varieties. Keywords: lexical errors, English-Arabic translation, borrowing, language contact|
|Corporate Governance and Fraudulent Financial Reporting-Evidence from the Nigerian Stock Exchange||442-450|
|Sunday, Chukwunedu Okaro and Okafor G.O|
The purpose of this paper is to explore the corporate governance factors associated with the fraudulent financial reporting scandal at the Nigerian stock Exchange (NSE henceforth).
A case study approach was adopted for the study. Qualitative document analysis was used to determine the corporate governance factors associated with the fraudulent financial reporting at the exchange.
The study has found that many corporate governance factors were associated with the fraudulent financial reporting at the NSE. These include audit failure, Unethical board and management, regulatory tardiness, weak internal control system and absence of profit motive.
Research Limitations/ Implications
The research is a single case study and as such the result may not be generalized.
This study is of particular relevance to SEC which is charged with the responsibility for issuing and revising corporate governance codes for companies.
This paper documents for the first time corporate governance factors associated with fraudulent financial reporting for a non-profit making and self regulatory organization in Nigeria. On a global basis, it has added to the very scanty literature on corporate governance and fraudulent financial reporting in bourses. Keywords: Corporate Governance, Fraudulent financial reporting, Security and Exchange commission, The Nigerian Stock Exchange, Forensic Report. Paper Type: Case Study.
|Macroeconomic Reforms, Institutions and Economic Performance in Nigeria||451-463|
|Enang B. Udah, Peter Ubi and Lionnel Efiom|
|Abstract: The objective of this paper had been to investigate the impact of macroeconomic reforms and institutions on economic performance in Nigeria from 1970 to 2010 within the framework of co-integration and error correction paradigms. Per capita GDP and inflation were proxies for macroeconomic performance, macroeconomic reforms was captured by ratio of credit to the core private sector as a percentage of GDP and government expenditure on transport and communication, institutions and governance were measured by contract intensive money (proxy for property right), rule of law and government effectiveness. The results showed that contract intensive money and government effectiveness entered the regression lines with the correct a priori economic expectations. That is, property right and governance effectiveness are critical in improving economic performance. The results indicated that besides formulation of sound reform policies and political leadership, property rights and governance structure are important elements that determine macroeconomic reforms outcomes and the path of economic performance. Effective governance should be seen as a dynamic process, capable of responding to the ever changing technological, social, economic and political environments. The paper recommends that the concept of governance effectiveness and property rights needs to be redefined or strengthen to make it more effective and accountable and that governance issues and institutions should be incorporated in the reform process if sustainable economic performance is desired. Keywords: Reforms, institutions, co-integration and economic performance|
|Arokayasala: Ancient Khmer Hospital in Thailand||464-470|
Thesis title: “Arokayasala”: Khmer Hospitals in Thailand. The objectives of this thesis were to study the model of the structure of the Khmer “Arokayasala” in Thailand, the process of Khmer medicine, kinds of medicinal plants that is effective for the medicine that appeared in ancient Khmer inscriptions and to compare the kinds of medicinal plants that is valuable in medicinal effectives that appeared in the ancient Khmer and Thai medicinal plants.
This study based on qualitative research by archaeological survey in studying 30 “Arokayasala” sites in Thailand by using participatory and non-participatory observations methodology, focus group, and in-depth interview with the community leaders, teachers, Bhuddist monks, local Khmer medicinal experts in the Khmer local Arokaya locations and the Thai-Cambodian border communities.
The results of the study were: the 30 “Arokayasala” composed of quardrangular plans, with small lotus shaped main prang in the middle of the walls, with the front balcony stretched to the east. In most cases, there is a main entrance only at the front of the building. The main structures of the “Arokayasala” found in Thailand usually consisted of the four walls, the main prang, a library building, the main gate or Kopura, and a sacred reservoir. The main structures of the building were built with laterite. At the same time most of the decorative designs were caved on the sand stones.
The illness curing of the ancient Khmer doctors were usually done in a multi-purposes i.e. for physical, mental, soul, social and environmental purposes and usually clearly associated with Buddhist beliefs, Brahman beliefs and beliefs in ghosts. The ancient Khmer people used to believe that the illnesses usually were caused by the nature and super nature. There were two ways in curing illnesses i.e. 1) task processes curing method by adjusting the imbalance of the body to the balancing condition with the natural herbs; and 2) giving advice process curing method by using magic arts, magic spells, incantations, and the various illness curing ceremonies. Most ancient Khmer doctors used both methods in helping the patients to fight with the illnesses. The processes for illness curing usually involved with various ceremonies to help make the drugs to be more effective in illness curing. The ceremonies consisted of 4 steps: 1) paying respect to the teachers; 2) analysis of the illnesses; 3) curing processes; and 4) thank-offering.
A comparison of effectiveness of 7 types of medicinal plants between those appeared on ancient Khmer and Thai medicinal books i.e. garlic, cardamon, camphor, salt, bee wax, swamp cabbage, and vegetable oil, resulted that nearly all of the mentioned medicinal plants had the same effectiveness. A small difference occurred was that Thai medicinal books described in more details than those of the ancient Khmer ones; since there were more studies on medicinal plants in Thailand. And moreover, the descriptions and collection of data about medicinal plants in Thailand were more complete so they enabled us to describe the effectiveness of the medicinal plants better than those in the ancient Khmer medicinal books.
|The Model of System’s Developing on Strengthened Community Network which has Supported the Lumtakong Basin Flood Disaster||471-476|
|Atcha Khetbumrung, Mali Photipim, Jun Norkaew, Nutthajit Onmenk Suttipong Pangtavong and Veerapol Vongprapun|
The study aims at building and developing a strong community network to cope with the flood in Lumtakong River basin. The respondents to the test consist of 100 community leaders from 3 districts including Srikew, Maung and Chalermprakiet, the experts in water management from government sector and the representative from people sector. The model which derived from a formal specified selection by considering from the established criteria was evaluated; strengthened community network was developed by PAR processes under ADDIE MODEL theory. A questionnaire was used as a tool for this study, basic statistics such as median and inter-quartile range were applied to analyze the information.
The result of the study showed that strengthened community network pattern to cope with the flood in the Lumtakong is appropriate and feasible by following the conditions (Mdn >3.50 and IQR<1.50) that consist of 6 stages: Step 1 analyze the problems in the area/community, Step2 setting up 3 districts network,Step3establishcommunication/surveillance/ alarm/assist /rehabilitation system ,Step 4 capacity building for the network ,Step 5 reinforce the strength of the network, Step 6 evaluate /summary and disseminate to the public. Keywords: The model of system’s developing on strengthened community network which has supported the Lumtakong Basin flood disaster.